With a draw is called, especially in the game of chess, the indecisive outcome of a sporting competition.
Draw in chess
" Draw " comes from the French and is the past participle of the verb " remettre ", which means " to cover " or " Reset ". Thus, the "Reset" to restore the initial state ( with equal chances ) or the " deferral of the decision " until the next game of chess. In French, even the draw is however referred with partial Zero Emissions.
You can offer your opponent a draw, it can reject the offer of a draw or accept the offer of a draw. When a game ends in a draw, then we also say that opponents have also stored. If neither side has profitable advantage during a game, then we can also say " the game is inside the draw width".
Since the international chess tournament in Dundee in 1867, a draw - lot is counted with half a point for a win, the player receives a full point. The term " draw " was also applied to other sports and walks of life.
Cases of draw
A chess game is a draw,
- If the player is located at the train is no legal move available to be king but not in chess (win )
- When a position has arisen in which neither player can checkmate the opponent's king with any series of legal moves. Such a position is called "dead " position. In most cases, this neither player has enough characters left to checkmate the other player (eg, king against king, king against king and knight, king against king and bishop ). There are also cases in which about due to a keyed pawn structure can win any of the players.
- If both players agree.
- When struck 50 trains long no figure ( which also counts as a peasant figure in the sense of this rule) and no farmer the player thereupon located on the course was moved and draw a complaint
- If an identical position with the same possible moves and the same player is caused to the train at least the third time on the chessboard or will arise instantly and located on the course players complained about this. (If the position is created by his next train, the claimant must train his players first write on his scoresheet and the referee declare his intention to run this train. ) This is called a three-fold repetition of position. The best known example is the " eternal chess ". Here, a player is constantly chess rules whose repetition of the opponent can not avoid.
- If a player exceeds the time limit, his opponent, however, no longer has enough mat material available, that is win by any legal sequence of moves can be more
- If both players have exceeded their reflection at the last time control and is not determinable, whose flag has first fallen. ( Modern digital chess clocks generally show clearly which player has first exceeded the time limit for analog chess clocks, however, both flags may be dropped and it is -. , If the referee is not observed as an eyewitness to the clock - not subsequently determine which flag has first fallen. )
- At the request of a player decision by the referee, when in the final stages of a match with tournament reflection ( in which all remaining moves must be made in a limited time ) or a quick game of chess opponent takes no more profit trials, but tries to win by timeout
Criticism of short draw - games
Often observed in chess tournaments that players agree after a few strokes without actual combat to a draw. This led since the start of the tournament chess again and again to review:
- In a short draw forces are protected. In particular, in round-robin tournaments, this may mean for the next round an advantage.
- With a draw, you can often affect the tournament result (tactical draw).
- Do not be fought games make chess unattractive.
Suggestions for improvement
Again and again ideas have been proposed as one might a short draw "punish " or contain:
- Three - point rule: In a chess tournament the winner of a match receives three points for a draw there is a point. This means compared to the current regime: A draw is devalued against a win, a draw is less than half the battle.
- Three - point rule with Patt - special. Here the three- point rule applies with the exception that the one who forces a stalemate in loss position, "rewarded" with 2 points is. A similar stand-off special was proposed by Lasker.
- Banning draw offers before the thirtieth train.
Especially against the three-point rules apply a critic:
- There are also many high-class games that end after a varied battle with a draw. Players should not be punished in such cases.
- If a player against a much stronger opponent reaches a draw - which always happens in Open tournaments - so that's a success that should not be written down for him.