Guarda ( [ gu̯ardɐ ]? / I ) is a municipality in the Lower Engadine in the district of Inn in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. In Guarda Romansh is spoken. On 1 January 2015 Guarda will be merged with five other municipalities ( Ftan, Ardez, Sent, Scuol Scuol and ) together and form the largest community of Switzerland. With about 4,700 residents, it will be both the largest Romanesque church Grison at all.
Guarda consists of about seventy houses and is located on a sunny terrace on the north side of the Inn valley at an altitude of 1,650 m. Due to its location, the village is a good base for hiking in the area and a popular destination for tourists. The train station is 40 minutes walk from Guarda to below 1,431 m, right next to the corresponding fraction Giarsun.
Guarda is first mentioned in documents in 1160. Today, the village is increasingly threatened with extinction; more and more people move into larger towns or cities. So it was in Guarda in 1930 38 agricultural enterprises full 1984 there were only 18 Primary school closed in 2005. The Post has been opened for an hour a day, and yet there is a village shop.
From 1939 to 1945, the Grisons Homeland Security restored in a large-scale project on the 30 houses of the village.
Between 1850 and 1860, 1888 and 1920 and from 1930 to 1980 there were three waves of migration in the village. The people migrated in search of a better life and work in the industrial centers and tourist destinations. Therefore, the population declined in these 130 years by more than half ( from 1850 to 1980: -52 %) from 280 to 134 people. Since then, it grows back quite strong (1980-2005: 36% ) - but is still with about a hundred people below the level of 1850.
The Grison Romanesque idiom Vallader is used to this day by a majority of the population as an everyday language. By 1980, the population was almost entirely Romansh (1880 96 %, 1900 99% 1941 91 % and 1980 90%). By changing the language of the locals and German immigrants, Romansh lost especially in the last twenty years against the Germans on the ground - despite support from community and school. In 1990, 91 % and 2000 79% of the population in Romansh. The development of the past decades indicates the following table:
Besides Romansh and German was in 2000 French with 2.78% share to the three most frequently used languages.
Religion and denominations
In 1529 the inhabitants of the village came over to the Protestant doctrine.
Origin and nationality
From the end of 2005 182 inhabitants were 163 Swiss nationals.
Guarda has its own station, which does not, however, lies in the village center, but below on the main road 27 in the fraction Giarsun. The place is connected to the station by a bus line and a steep footpath. The trains of the Rhaetian Railway keep in Guarda.
Culture and sights
Guarda is considered one of the best preserved Engadine villages and thus both architecturally and historically interesting. The village consists almost exclusively of the typical Engadine houses with numerous sgraffito: House Jecklin, House Könz, House beard.
For his exemplary care the rural character of the village in 1975 was awarded the Wakker Prize.
Guarda is the venue of the famous children's book Schellenursli, written by Selina Chönz and illustrated by Alois Carigiet. Selina Chönz ' son, the painter Steivan Liun Könz lived and worked until his death in Guarda.
Worth seeing in the village center is the Reformed Church. In odd Giarsun is a prehistoric stone wall
In the tradition of the nickname of the Engadine villages the inhabitants Guardas glad ils speculants ( German " speculators ").
One of the many fountains
Meeting at the fountain
Village in winter
- Iachen Ulrich Könz, Architect
- Selina Chönz, writer