Heinrich Held

Heinrich Held ( born June 6 1868 in Erbach im Taunus; † August 4, 1938 in Regensburg ) was a German politician of the Bavarian People 's Party ( BVP ) and from 1924 until he was deposed in 1933, Prime Minister of Bavaria.

Early years

The son of a musician, farmer and businessman John Held and his wife Susanne grew up in Erbach. At his birth house is a memorial plaque to Henry hero. Then he studied from 1892 to 1896 law and political sciences and history in Strasbourg, Marburg and Heidelberg. In Strasbourg, he became a member of the Catholic Student Association Franconia in CT, for which he later committed and where he remained all his life closely connected to. After the state examination in Strasbourg hero worked as a journalist in Strasbourg and Heidelberg, to finally be in 1899 editor of Regensburg morning sheet. In 1906 he became editor and co-owner of the Regensburg scoreboard after 1901, the daughter of Marie Joseph Habbel, the owner of both Regensburg newspapers married.

About a Regensburg municipal mandate came hero in 1907 as deputy of the Centre Party in the Bavarian Landtag. In 1914, he was Group President and a short time later state chairman of the Bavarian Centre Party.

Hero was after the First World War in 1918 he co-founded the BVP, the dissolved fraction of their communion with the Centre Party in the Reichstag in January 1920. Since 1919 he was a member of the Landtag and the same year until 1925 Leader of the BVP. In 1921 he was president of the Catholic Congress in Frankfurt am Main.

Prime minister

Following the resignation of Prime Minister Eugen Ritter von Knilling ( BVP ) hero was by a vote of BVP, German National People's Party ( DNVP ), German People's Party ( DVP ) and the Peasants Federation on June 28, 1924 was elected Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Bavaria. He had held continuously until the Nazis in 1933 illegally deposed him this office.

Held candidate in the presidential election in 1925 on the first ballot, but received only 3.7 percent of the vote. After his failure, he supported with Paul von Hindenburg, the representatives of the national conservative right against the center deputies Wilhelm Marx.

In the same year he joined the Free State of Bavaria, a concordat with the Holy See. 1925 was followed by a treaty with the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Hero put himself in memoranda in 1924, 1926 and 1928 and in the Provincial Conference in Berlin for a constitutional strengthening country, but could not prevail.

On January 4, 1925, he received the following the Hitler Putsch from his imprisonment dismissed Adolf Hitler, who assured him to pursue his goals in future only by legal means. Hero then lifted the ban on the Nazi Party and the People's Observer.

But he clearly distanced himself from the Nazis from 1930 and enacted the first ban on uniforms for the Nazi Party. Hero took a decided federalism; this setting even worsened during the era of Heinrich Brüning and the dismissal of the Prussian Prime Minister Otto Braun by Chancellor Franz von Papen.

Following a vote defeat in parliament in 1930 remained hero -executive in office. In winter 1932/33 hero took on with Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria contact to appoint him in case of a Nazi takeover of power under Article 64 of the Bavarian Constitution to the General State Commissioner. After the seizure of power by the National Socialists in 1933 hero, but hesitated to invoke as a protection against the DC circuit the Crown Prince to the General State Commissioner or to restore the monarchy in Bavaria.

On March 9, 1933, was Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick, the executive power in Bavaria Franz Ritter von Epp. On the same day Adolf Wagner, Ernst Röhm, Heinrich Himmler and Ritter von Epp searched on the incumbent Prime Minister and declared him deposed. Thereafter, the government building was occupied. In vain brought hero by telegram at the Presidential Palace in Berlin his complaints before. Three days later, Hitler went to Munich. On March 15 hero resigned his office and retired to Regensburg back into private life.

His son Philip hero was from 1966-1974 Minister of Justice in Bavaria.


For his services to the promotion of the Rhine -Main-Danube waterway was held in 1917 by King Ludwig III. appointed a Privy Councillor. The city of Regensburg in 1926 awarded him an honorary citizen. Hero received from several Bavarian and Austrian universities the honorary doctorate. Hero was also honor the Philistines KV connections K.St.V. Rhenaniastraße Innsbruck and K.St.V. Ottonia Munich. He was also a member of the K.D.St.V. Rheno - Franconia in Munich CV.