Henry III of England
Henry III. Closely. Henry III ( born October 1, 1207 Winchester, † November 16, 1272, Westminster Palace) from the house of Plantagenet, despite his lengthy reign from 1216 to 1272 one of the lesser-known ruler of Britain. He was born in 1207 as the son of the royal couple King John and Isabella of Angoulême. At the age of nine years he followed his father to the throne. The country has therefore been to 1227 by different rulers. Henry married Eleanor of Provence, with whom he had nine children. His eldest son Edward, known as " Longshanks " followed him on the throne.
Henry's reign was characterized from the beginning by strife. When he was crowned on October 28, 1216 at the Cathedral of Gloucester hastily to the king, were London and large parts of southern England in the hands of rebel barons and a French army. The regency took over Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, Hubert de Burgh and William Marshal, who succeeded in May 1217 to beat the rebels at the Battle of Lincoln. Nevertheless, it was the reign of Henry III. only be secured by the Magna Carta again recognized, confirming the influence rights of the nobility to the king. This stabilized the situation, and Henry was again in 1220 in Westminster Abbey, the traditional place of coronation crowned. Under the regent, conflicts arose, which ended 1234 with a renewed nobility revolt and the overthrow de Roches.
Henry III. now had a free hand to independent governance, but put the power quickly in the hands of consultants. After her marriage with the count's daughter Eleanor of Provence in 1236 the Savoy uncle William, Thomas and Peter developed great power at the English court. From 1236 to 1258, the weak king fluctuated repeatedly between various consultants, to whom he confided in each case just more, including his youngest brother, Richard of Cornwall, and his half-brothers from Poitou. The as "foreigners " reputable consultants reinforced the resentment of the English nobility against the king.
In addition, the English barons worked to expand its power structure in the kingdom. Multiple had Henry III. the Magna Carta and confirm the nobility make concessions. At the same time the financial position became worse and worse. The high revenue could not offset the cost of the royal household, among other things, an elephant, and especially for several unsuccessful campaigns to recapture the English possessions in France. The king proved to be militarily incapable of French allies as unreliable. 1259 was Henry the possession of Aquitaine, Gascony and other territories angevinischer only secure, assured by the French king in the Treaty of Paris Hereditary Homage for these areas. Henry III. and his successors on the English throne was thus a part of their empire became a fief of the French king's men. Besides the political consequences, especially the status associated loss was perceived as painful. To make matters worse Heinrich also went to the papal offer, the Kingdom of Sicily for 135,000 silver marks to buy, where, however, the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick II, King was, and the first would have had to be conquered - a completely hopeless undertaking if it had ever been attempted.
These new pressures and military commitments did not want to share the barons. In 1248 they demanded the expulsion of foreign consultants, control of the government as well as the reorganization of the royal finances. Surprisingly, V. Simon de Montfort, French and even the sister of the king sat married, at the head of the opposition. 1263 Henry attempted to establish his authority again. On May 14, a Noble Levy struck under Simon the King at the Battle of Lewes. Henry, his brother Richard, and heir to the throne Edward were captured. For a year, Simon was practically the ruler of England. A Parliaments, a national assembly of representatives of the nobility, the counties and the cities was convened - for the first time in English history was also attended by representatives of the bourgeoisie participated in a Parliament. Henry's son, Edward had meanwhile escaped from captivity in Gloucester. He won in 1265 at the Battle of Evesham in which Simon de Montfort was killed, and ran a cruel vengeance on the rebels.
Henry died in 1272 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Marriage and issue
His marriage to Eleanor of Provence took place in Canterbury Cathedral, Kent, England on January 14, 1236. With his wife he had nine children, of whom, however, the five last -born nor died in infancy:
- Edward I (1239-1307)
- Margaret (1240-1275) ∞ 1251 King Alexander III. of Scotland
- Beatrice (1242-1275) ∞ 1260 Duke John II of Brittany
- Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster ( 1245-1296 )
- Richard (1247-1256)
- John (1250-1256)
- William (1251-1256)
- Katherine (1253-1257)