House of Aviz
The house Avis (Portuguese Aviz [ ɐviʃ ] ) was the second Portuguese royal dynasty and ruled Portugal from 1383 to 1580, the name goes back to the place Avis, seat of the Order of Avis, the Grand Master of the dynasty founder John I (Portuguese. : D.João I. ) was.
Succession dispute in 1383
1383 died with King Ferdinand I of the dynasty of Burgundy Portuguese rulers in direct male line. Then the king had no son, Portugal should fall on his heiress Beatrix, who was married to King John I of Castile, Castile. In the revolution of 1383, the country rebelled against the connection to Castile. John of Avis, an illegitimate son of King Peter I ( † 1367 ) continued, at the head of the insurrection. In April 1385 he was finally collected by the Portuguese Cortes ( the parliament of nobles ) as John I to the king and was able to secure his rule, after the Battle of Aljubarrota in August 1385 had been able to teach Castile a decisive defeat.
Dominated by Johann I. founded the dynasty of Portugal until 1580. Their rule in the golden age of country, when Portugal became one of the most important and most powerful countries in the world and also a culturally flourished ( especially during the reign Emanuel I fell. ( Manuel I ), see also Emanuelstil ). Died in 1580 with Cardinal Henry of the last ruler of the house Avis without heirs. Although initially tried Antonio of Crato, a non-marital child of the house to grab the kingship. However, he failed and could not prevent the Portuguese throne for some time fell to the Spanish Habsburgs. It was only from 1640 Portugal had with the house of Braganza, which is also attributed to an unmarried couple, due to John of Avis, again own kings.