Hundred (county division)
As Harden, formerly also called herds, one called in Scandinavia, especially in Denmark later (including the Duchy of Schleswig ) and in parts of the later Sweden and Norway, the lower counties. The term originally meant as " hundred " and is in the Scandinavian languages schwed. Härad ( early Swedish hæraþ among others ), HERAD Icelandic, Danish / Norwegian ( Bokmål / Riksmål ) Odsherred, new - Norwegian ( Nynorsk ) herad.
The etymology of the word Harde is controversial. Mostly it is assumed that the word consists of two parts: Haer " crowd " and a word that "ride" with ride is related ( OHG hariraida, heriraita ). The importance of development can therefore by " riding crowd " over " crowd, riding at the same place " be run to "territory of a common meeting place, Thingplace, place of sacrifice " - or " horse crowd " as a military unit to " settlement area " of a riding crowd.
In historical times the Harden were no more military districts, but they were given the importance as a legal circles around a Hard Thing. A Harde included several settlements that had collectively to contribute to national defense. The meeting of the inhabitants, the Hardesting, got more and more importance as a full sub court. The same director was appointed by a sovereign magistrate that has been put out of the middle of the inhabitants in general.
In the course of Christianization first a first Hardeskirche was built in each Harde, from the then more parishes were stored. This developed into subordinate administrative units, but got no meaning as police and judicial districts.
In Jutland and in the Duchy of Schleswig several Harden were summarized in SYSSEL that are probably as old and their original meaning is also difficult to interpret. These were replaced in the 14th century by the Lehnsdistrikte or offices, which developed around the sovereign castles has now been accumulated.
After Norway, Harden came as a legal concept of Denmark on the then Norwegian Bohuslän. Since the word is also found elsewhere in Norway, it is likely two meanings:
The latter meaning was the most widespread. The legal concept of hardware, which follows on from the Hard Thing, spread across Eastern Norway, Oppland and Gudbrandsdalen.
The position of the Harden from the late Middle Ages was weakened by the fact that both bewidmete town charter cities, nobles goods, spiritual possessions and from the 17th century also oktroyierte polders ( a specialty in the Duchy of Schleswig ) own court and police districts were. Nevertheless, the Harden retained its function as sovereign under judicial and police districts.
Originally the Hardesvögte -established farmers. Although be appointed by the rulers, the Office was not rare inherited. From the 17th century, the legal relationships were complicated, and it was always more about this hiring learned jurists Hardesvögte. This brought certain problems as the old customary laws often still possessed more authority than newly enacted regulations and laws. Nevertheless, the sovereign administration sat here through gradually.
In modern times, it came to Denmark in 1791 to a restructuring of all administrative boundaries, so that the local Harden were rounded territories. A reform of the offices and Harden in Schleswig did not materialize. Only in 1850 unified to some official, Hardes and parish boundaries, and with the decree of June 3, 1853 added to the noble goods, imposed the polders and the remaining spiritual possessions back into a Harden.
After the end of the German -Danish War and the creation of the Prussian province of Schleswig -Holstein, a new court order was introduced on June 22, 1867: The still existing in principle, district courts replaced the old Hardes and city courts. The Harden acted only as police districts, and they were called henceforth Hardesvogteien. This was followed by a re- separation of the noble estates. From 1 January 1889, the Hardesvogteien were replaced by smaller administrative districts.
In Denmark, Harden made until 1919, the lower legal and police districts. This year, the Hardesvögte were finally replaced by in their offices separate police chief and lower court judges. The Harden remained as districts still exist to law reform in 1956. By 1970, they still formed the basis for the division of Denmark in Protestant deaneries.
If the Harden have disappeared today, live some of their names yet as landscaping or office district designations continued, especially in North Frisia (Official Karrharde, Office Wiedingharde and Office Bökingharde ), Fishing ( Nieharde or Husbyharde ) in North Jutland ( Hanherred ) and Zeeland ( Hornsherred, Odsherred ).
Some Norwegian municipalities still use the term " herad " instead of " kommune " in their official name.