North Asia

North Asia is a large region in the north of the continent Asia.

There are two different definitions:

  • Most of the Asian part of Russia, consisting of the Urals Federal Districts ( Asian part ), Siberia and the Far East; This region is often referred to as a whole as Siberia.
  • Sometimes in addition to Mongolia, but East Asia is usually associated.

In the West, North Asia borders on the European part of Russia. This boundary is defined by the watershed of the Ural Mountains. In the south, North Asia is bounded by the states of Central Asia and China, and, where appropriate, through Mongolia. The northern border is formed by the Arctic Ocean, the east by the Pacific Ocean.


Built in the 13th century Mongol Empire also included the south of Northern Asia. After the fall of the Golden Horde in 1500 invaded Russian Cossacks, traders and colonists to the east, established settlements and traded, especially with furs and precious metals.

The Cossacks conquered the Tartar Khanate Sibir in 1582 near present-day Tobolsk; in 1600 fled the last Khan. The incursions of the Cossacks were made along the Siberian rivers and in 1607 they reached the Yenisei, Lena 1632 until 1636 they reached the Pacific Ocean. However, the Siberian peoples such as the Buryats, chanting and Koryak resisted and as the Russian conquest of Siberia was delayed until the beginning of the 18th century.

1689 joined the Russians and Chinese Treaty of Nercink, 1727 the Treaty of Kjachta, in both borders and the trade were regulated. A research expedition led Bering to Kamchatka, another important discovery was Gerhard Friedrich Müller and Johann Georg Gmelin. 1829 Alexander von Humboldt also traveled through Siberia.

Khabarovsk was founded in 1858 and - after the Treaty of Aigun with China -. Vladivostok in 1860 In 1891, the ground-breaking ceremony for the Trans-Siberian Railway, which was the first time consistently passable in the autumn of 1904 took place.

1915 confirmed the independence of Mongolia from China in the second Treaty of Kjachta. After the communist October Revolution, the Far Eastern Republic was founded in 1920. After a short time of a new Chinese occupation of Mongolia in 1921 again independently.

On the history see also the history of Siberia and the history of the Russian Far East.

  • Geography (Asia)