Oiapoque on the map of Brazil
Oiapoque is a municipality in the extreme north of Brazil in the state of Amapá. She is just over 20,500 inhabitants, the third largest city in the state and the municipality with the second- largest surface area. Economically important it is above all as a border town to French Guiana, from which the city is separated by the Oiapoque River.
Although the region was entered in the 16th century by European sailors, it was well into the 19th century practically inhabited only by First Waiapi Indians, from whose language the name of the village comes. Much of this period is not known, except that the first settlement in the area was called Martinique. Built in 1907, the Brazilian government a penal colony for political prisoners in the municipal area, which was later concentrated in the existing to this day military base Clevelândia do Norte. It was only on 23 May 1945 the church was finally established.
The municipality is divided into a main town ( Oiapoque ) and four districts:
- Clevelândia do Norte
- Vila Velha
- Vila Brasil
It belongs to mesoregion Norte de Amapá and microregion Oiapoque to the nor the place Calcoene heard.
Prefect has the Kommumalwahl 2012 for the term 2013-2016 Miguel Caetano de Almeida of the Partido Socialista Brasileiro (PSB ).
Economy and infrastructure
The city's economy is based on agriculture ( cultivation of tropical plants, livestock ), the gold extraction ( much of it illegal) and trade.
Oiapoque is connected via the BR- 156 on the Brazilian road network, but which is not yet fully paved. From the town of Saint -Georges -de- l'Oyapock on the French side of the river, it is accessible by boat.
Since the prices are lower than those of French Guiana, was especially after the opening of the road from Saint -Georges by Régina 2004, the city to a shopping center for the residents of Cayenne and other cities of the French territory.
Bridge over the Rio Oiapoque
Since August 2011 is over a bridge, the first direct road link between France and Brazil, which (as of June 2013), however, due to works on the access and missing customs station is not open to traffic. Previously, a detour via Suriname and Guyana was required. For French Guiana, the bridge provides a great potential for development, as the territory which has so far only small ports will be so much better connected to the sea port of Santana, which is particularly associated with the ESA spaceport Guiana Space Centre in Kourou industry will benefit.
Since completion of the bridge, a road link on the north coast of South America is ( interrupted by two ferries) to present to Guyana; the completion of a well planned for 2010 link between Guyana and Venezuela ( Itaballi - Eteringbang ) is uncertain because of the border dispute between the two countries.
In one study, a Human Development Index value of 0.738 was determined for Oiapoque in 2000. This was slightly below the Brazilian average for the year ( 0,766 ) and below the average of the state of Amapá ( 0,753 )
Among the problems of the city heard the poor developed infrastructure, especially due to heavy power management problems in Amapá deficient supply of electric power, which led to a long failure of regular power supply 2006/2007. Also, health care is precarious. Another problem is the illegal prostitution, including of children and adolescents.