Pardus (operating system)

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Pardus is a free Linux distribution that was developed as part of the Pardus project in Turkey. The open-source Project was founded in September 2003 and is supported by the National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology ( UEKAE ) developed and funded as an independent Linux distribution; Pardus is that no derivative.

The project name is derived from the scientific name of the Anatolian leopard from (Panthera pardus ).

Pardus puts the emphasis on ease of use and stability, and seeks to ensure so that Pardus is comprehensively used in Turkey. Besides its use in public institutions, organizations and authorities Pardus to be particularly widespread in private households. This should be achieved in order bypass console input largely to inter alia through a broad hardware support and the targeted development of graphic components, and utilities.

  • 5.1 YALI
  • 5.2 Mudur
  • 5.3 COMAR
  • 5.4 Package Management PiSi
  • 5.5 Kaptan
  • 5.6 zemberek
  • 6.1 articles and reports on Pardus Linux


Pardus is developed in Turkey by the National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology ( UEKAE ). This facility is subject to the Turkish Science and Technology Research Institute ( TÜBİTAK ). In 2006, working on Pardus 15 developers and not exactly known number of volunteers. By the year 2012, the number of developers should be raised to about 50. Turkish students also have the opportunity to complete an internship at the Pardus project.


According to the project coordinator Erkan Tekman you started the Pardus project in 2003 to ensure the safety of the computer used, inter alia, on areas such as the intelligence service and the army. To ensure this, had to be ensured that the source code is open and freely modifiable. The cost savings by using a specially developed operating system based on Linux also played a role, as Microsoft's Windows operating systems on machines of the armed forces and civil authorities that caused a lot of money had to be paid for licenses abroad.


Pardus is used in a pilot project since April 2007 by the Central Authority of the army recruitment ( ASAL ) and their representatives. Both other administrative structures of the armed forces and the Turkish Defence and the Ministry of Education to monitor the changeover to the Central Pardus recruitment authority of the army and planning a conversion. In parallel, the Ministry of Education will launch later this year Pardus at a few schools.

Pardus is used by the chief of Radio and Television of Turkey to the archiving, management and analysis of the broadcast program content of 210 national television channels and 860 national radio stations.

The representative of the Ministry of Health for the province of Manisa is currently drawing up a roadmap for the implementation of e- health project based on Pardus. Through the project, patients, doctors and pharmacists are given a central access file. This includes, for example, the disease history of the patient, but also the possibility of paying the medical prescriptions for the patient line. In the first stage 360 computers were connected to two central servers and previously recorded data of one million patients. In the next stage the provinces of Antalya, Bursa, Hatay and Eskişehir to the e - health system are connected.

Pardus 2007 has been (as of 1 February 2007) downloaded 120,000 times from the project homepage. This represents an increase of 300% compared to version 1.0. Extrapolating the data traffic from universities such as the Istanbul Bilgi University and other which will also host Pardus, Pardus 2007 version has been downloaded over 200,000 times. Pardus 2007 has also been distributed to computer magazines that are involved in the dissemination campaign with a circulation of 120,000 CDs. The representative of the Chamber of Electrical Engineers Ankara distributed an additional 10,000 Pardus -2007- CDs.


Revision history

Pardus 1.0 The first version, Pardus 1.0, was released on December 26, 2005, contained, among other things, the Linux kernel 2.6.14 and KDE 3.5 and supported the English and Turkish. The Pardus Live CD was the first product of the Pardus project.

Pardus 2007 After several alpha versions were presented under the name Pardus version 1.1 in 2006, followed on 18 December 2006, the release of Pardus 2007.

Pardus 2007.1 On 16 March 2007 Pardus 2007.1 Felis chaus was published. With the exception of Major Realeases ( Pardus 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 ) received since Pardus 2007.1 all versions of the nickname in Anatolia (formerly ) common species.

Pardus 2007.2 Pardus 2007.2 Caracal caracal was published on 11 July 2007.

Pardus 2007.3 The version of Pardus 2007.3 Lynx lynx was released on 19 November 2007 and used the Linux kernel 2.6.18, KDE 3.5.8, version 2.3, Internet applications ( browsers, e- mail, instant messaging, etc. ), multimedia and graphics applications (video, music, images, etc. ), games and much more. This version was a special installation CD ( Kurulan ) and as a live CD ( Calisan ).

Pardus 2008 The release of Pardus 2008 was delayed several times and finally took place on 27 June 2008. Too, in the following versions of the framework schedule delays were deliberately accepted to meet the development goals set in each version and to ensure stability.

Pardus 2008.1 The version of Pardus 2008.1 Hyaena hyaena was published on 15 September 2008. In this version of the Linux kernel came with extended hardware support used with Mozilla Firefox 3.0.1, KDE 3.5.10 and KDE 4.1.1 as a live CD, version 2.4.1 an improved network Manager with Ad -Hoc and 802.1x wireless support.

Pardus 2008.2 The version of Pardus 2008.2 Canis aureus was published on 30 January 2009. Despite the delayed completion ( in the new calendar year), it was decided to retain the originally planned designation 2008.2. In this version of the Linux kernel comes with enhanced hardware support for use. As a desktop environment KDE 3.5.10 or alternatively only a few days previously released KDE 4.2.0 serves. The software was updated with Mozilla Firefox 3.0.5, version 2.4.1, a further improved network manager, and new hardware drivers. Pardus 2008.2 is available in four versions. Two versions, which are suitable for direct installation: an English and Turkish with additional developer tools and an international, supports all 11 languages ​​; plus two live CDs that offer either KDE 3 or KDE 4 as the default interface.

Pardus 2009 On 17 July 2009 Pardus was released with the Linux kernel and KDE 4.2.4 2009. In addition, this version brings the Mozilla Firefox 3.5.1, 3.1 and many other upgrades with it. The file system can now also be used ext4. As in the previous version, there is again a Turkish and an international version with eleven languages.

Pardus 2009.1 Pardus 2009.1 Anthropoides virgo was published on January 15, 2010.

Pardus 2009.2 On Friday, June 4, 2010, Pardus 2009.2 Geronticus eremita has been published. Updated packages include KDE 4.4.4, Qt 4.6.2, Python 2.6.5, Office Suite, Firefox Web Browser 3.6.3, Thunderbird 3.0.4, Gimp 2.6.8 and Linux kernel 2.6. 31.13.

Pardus 2011 This version was published on 20 January 2011. This is the first 64- bit processors are supported.

Also new was the support of the Russian and Hungarian language. No longer supports the languages ​​Catalan, Polish and Portuguese.

Other new and pre-installed standard applications included, inter alia: Linux kernel 2.6.37, KDE SC 4.5.5, Logical Volume Manager ( LVM), GNOME NetworkManager 0.8.2, LibreOffice 3.3.0, Mozilla Firefox 4.0 Beta9, Clementine 0.6.

With the jump version of Pardus 2009.2 to Pardus 2011 release date and version designation voted to once again match conceptually.

Pardus 2011.1 Pardus 2011.1 Dama dama was published on 12 July 2011. In this version, some bugs were fixed and many packages updated or added. The basic components include Linux kernel, KDE SC 4.6.5, LibreOffice, Mozilla Firefox 5.0, Xorg 1.9.5, GIMP 2.6.11, Python 2.7.1, GCC 4.5.3 and glibc 2:12.

Pardus 2011.2 Pardus 2011.2 Cervus elaphus was presented on September 19, 2011 and includes, among other safety-critical updates and other updates such as: Network Manager, modem Manager 0.5, cups 1.4.8, LibreOffice 3.4.3.

Pardus 2011.2 was ( as it did in 2011 and Pardus 2011.1 ) available in four versions:

  • Installation DVD Pardus 2011.2 32 bit
  • Installation DVD Pardus 2011.2 64 bit
  • Live DVD Pardus 2011.2 32 bit
  • Live DVD Pardus 2011.2 64 bit

Pardus 2013 The first version, which is based on the Debian package sources. TÜBİTAK - ULAKBİM announced that Pardus had moved to Debian and now therefore is based on Debian.

Current Version and Outlook

On January 27, 2012 it was announced in the official mailing list of the Pardus developers, the end of life of the Pardus 2011 family; officially be no more updates. Various software packages for Pardus 2011.2 are currently being updated yet of voluntary supporters, including the German -speaking Community Pardus PardusUser. For continuity of the Pardus project, a workshop was scheduled for 23 and 24 March. The aim was to develop a roadmap for the future development of Pardus Linux, including several people from the Turkish-speaking experts and representatives were invited by the Turkish user groups. Officials are no published results of the workshop. Speculations range from one end of the Pardus project beyond the mere continuation of the corporate versions through to a support of official development through user groups. Individual users are currently focused on a Fork.

More versions

Pardus Corporate

The so-called corporate version has been specially tailored to the needs of companies and public institutions. So it is a stability and longer -term support designed ( 4 years ) distribution, but compared to "normal" Pardus version, which is especially suitable for private use, a smaller selection of software, libraries and settings brings.

Published on 16 February 2011 version of Pardus Corporate 2 contains, among other things, Linux kernel, KDE 3.5.10, Mozilla Firefox 3.6.13, LibreOffice, Xorg 1.7.7, GIMP 2.6.11 and Python 2.6.5.

Also for Pardus Corporate 2 are each a 32 - and 64- bit system as live and as installation image available for download.

Alternative desktop environments

In spring 2011, plans for additional versions of Pardus Linux have been known with alternative desktop environments under the name Comak; since first beta versions were published. Under the name Pardus 2011 Nusrat is a Linux system with the desktop environment Xfce ( version 4.8) ready. Pardus 2011 Falco Peregrinus is equipped with the window manager Fluxbox. Since April 2011, beta versions are available with the desktop environments GNOME and LXDE available.



YALI (Yet Another Linux Installer ) is the Setup Wizard from Pardus and leads the user through a graphical user interface easily and quickly through the installation. Here are the basic configurations of the packages are made.


Mudur is the Pardus own init system, which mounts the root partition, modules loads and initializes appropriate services.


Comar ( Configuration Manager ) is the configuration manager of Pardus, with which you can make necessary settings among other things, the hardware, the boot process, the networks, user accounts, time and regional settings and the display panel, which then ensures that the system working properly.

Package Management PiSi

PiSi ( Packages Installed Successfully as Intended, pronunciation: [ pisi ] ) is the package management system of Pardus. It is the primary tool to install, remove, or update applications. PiSi stores and manages the dependencies of the different packages, libraries, and COMAR processes. The reasons for using a standalone package management system, the lack of simplicity of existing, mature package management systems, the great effort, improving existing systems, as well as the desired strict separation of package specifications and installation instructions are listed by the developers.

The official depots currently include over 4,500 packages for Pardus 2011; in community depots are more PiSi packages available. Package requests can be said about the Pardus bug tracking system, PiSi but also provides the ability to compile programs yourself.

Properties of PiSi:

  • Uses LZMA
  • Written in Python
  • Small and efficient packages
  • Written repositories of XML and Python
  • Faster database access by using the Berkeley DB
  • Integration of low-level and high-level package operations ( dependencies)
  • To develop framework on applications and tools

PiSi itself is command line based ( CLI), with the package manager is also an appropriate user-friendly Qt-based graphical user interface ( GUI ) is available. A comprehensive German -language introduction to the Pardus 's package management can be downloaded in a preliminary version at the German Pardus community.


After the initial installation of Pardus users of Kaptan is welcomed and guided by a configuration to make first personalized settings and their preferences in the operation (such as preferred repositories, optics, mouse settings, and click Properties) set.


Zemberek was integrated into Pardus to give the user access to a Turkish spelling and grammar checker in your word processor (Open Office ), text and chat ( Kopete ), calendar (Kontact ) and email software ( Kmail ) allow.