Qaa (aka Hor -qa -a) is the Horus name of an ancient Egyptian King ( Pharaoh ) of the 1st dynasty ( Early Dynastic period ), which by 2870 BC. reigned.
Over the actual Longevity disagreement, in the Turin Royal Canon Qaa be awarded 63 years, however, Manetho ascribes to him only 26 years. According to recent findings, which are based on vessel inscriptions as well as analyzes and reconstructions of Palermosteins, Qaa should have reigned about 33 years.
It is not clear who is QAAs father., It is believed, however, that Semerkhet (his predecessor) or Anedjib could be his father. If one may give Manetho faith, he was the son of Semerkhet.
Peter Kaplony identified Qaa before he took office as the official Qaa - nebti, who bore the title of a function Sem. The tasks of the occupied only in the 5th Dynasty Sem- priest led at that time still the oldest king's son and successor itself. Kaplony suspected for these reasons that the crown prince and eldest son Qaa ascended the throne on the natural succession rite.
Qaa seems to have reigned relatively long time. On stone bowls from Saqqara his second sed festival is occupied. In Saqqara several mastabas ( S3500, S3505, S3120 ) dated to his reign. The first years are preserved on the fragment of the Cairene Palermosteins, but record this usually only religious ceremonies. There are known several years of the ruler tablets, one of which mentions the foundation of a building called qau - Netjeru.
A mastaba at Saqqara ( S3505 ) is the official Merka. For the first time this mastaba is preceded by a mortuary temple, where remnants of the painting can be seen. Other high officials under Qaa are some Henuka, who was already under Semerkhet in office, as well as Neferef and Sabef that were buried in Abydos. From Sabef be found there a decorated stele. Under Qaa is attested, whose name was not delivered for the first time the important office of a Tjati.
Transition from first to second dynasty
There are signs that the end of his reign was not without problems. In the above grave of officials Merka, the name of an otherwise little attested ruler, Seneferka found. In another vessel fragments that dated to about this in time to get the name of a certain King " bird" was. Both rulers do not appear in later king lists. It is believed that these rulers were fighting after the death of Qaa around the throne and Hetepsechemui, the first ruler of the 2nd Dynasty, the situation had to end violently, after which began a new dynasty. In the case of the name of Seneferka has been also suggested that there might have been a second Horus name of Qaa that wore this for a very short time.
From Qaa, the last king of the first dynasty, one knows the grave at Abydos ( grave Q), which is about 30 times 23 feet tall. It consisted of an underground grave chamber to the led down a flight of stairs. Next to the stairs, there were four pantries. The grave was robbed. A remarkable find is an ivory chopsticks, probably from a game on a tied Asian shows how in the inscription. Besides the usual vessel seals with his name was found in his Abydos grave two steles. You are now in the museums of Cairo and Pennsylvania ( see image ). The custom of burying with the death of the king and the royal servants with, has, under the reign of Qaa subsided ( only 26 graves side ) and stopped completely in the 2nd Dynasty.