The term sculpture covers the whole field of the production of sculptures and objects in art and crafts.
Word origin and usage
Therefore, the word stands for:
- The work of a sculptor
- The generic name for three-dimensional works of art, whether they are full- sculptures or reliefs from solid materials ( image works of fine art )
- The name for a workshop or companies are performing in which such permanent work
Originally, the term only the sculptor sculptor (sculpture maker), but the term of the modeller ( maker of sculptures ) has risen in it than the model term changes in the course of modern times. In German, it divides the sculpture by loanwords in sculpture as the subtractive, which removes material such as marble, sand stone or wood and plastic as the additive work, anträgt which matter such as clay, wax, plaster or metal. An intermediate portion presents itself in the metal sculpture, which works with the blacksmith or blowing technique. Here is neither subtractive still worked additively, but deformed.
An expansion of the learned sculptural - dimensional works in modernity with the artistic and creative joining of very different materials in object art. The method of assemblage is emphasized.
Historical Quote: The Sculptor " is an artist who, with the hammer, mallet, chisel and knife, according to a pre-drawn plans, or real original, and after a made in wax, clay or gypsum [sic ] model, in rocks, sand marble, alabaster, wood, metal, etc. images schnitzet, hews, digs and cuts. " ( from Oeconomische encyclopedia of Johann Georg Krünitz )
Sculpture as a work of a sculptor
As early as the Paleolithic gave people a form stones. These bifaces were indeed created as tools, can, however, strictly taken as the first sculptures of human history be considered (see also Venus of Hohle Fels, lion-man ). Stone Slam ornamental purposes, but only began in the late Neolithic period. Over the millennia everyday utensils were more elaborate designed, as they should not only fulfill their intended purpose, but also the ornament served. Cro- Magnon man then used as already Engraving stylus to engrave bone and ivory to sculpt. It was also easier to machine materials such as clay or wood used, but these artifacts are mostly not preserved. An example of the sculptural design art of the early modern humans are the bone and ivory sculptures of the Aurignacian in wages Valley, the female statuettes of the Gravettian or the reliefs of the Magdalenian (Bison representations in the VolP Caves ).
The pharaohs of ancient Egypt were smaller and larger sculptures of precious rocks such as lapis lazuli and jasper finished, as well as an addition to the tombs. The most important tools based on harder stone or places and were made of wood; this has been used in many ways, such as a set to roll or pull heavy blocks of stone as a handle on the tools or blasting of rock fragments, by putting it doused with water and the expansion of space used in a fugue. In Ancient Greece they created life-like statues of marble and clay, which are unfortunately not been preserved to a large extent; of some plants but are known Roman copies. In the Far East, however, was rather worked with jade, ivory and bronze. The motive were often animals such as horses, buffalo, bears, rhinos, elephants and tigers. In North America, Native American pottery making in addition to animal models, objects for daily use, such as bowls, and musical instruments made of clay. Notable examples of sculpture can be seen in the Hittite stonemason's workshop of Yesemek in Turkey.
In ancient times, the spectrum of machining process was then extended to the casting of metals in prefabricated forms. During the European Middle Ages it was already using a variety of tools that are also used in similar form today.
Sculpture as a generic term
The sculpture is one of the oldest fine arts of cultural history. The difference of sculptural works of painting consists in the three-dimensional works of art. In sculpture, shapes and structures are made spatial experience using different materials and different processing techniques of sculptors. The created sculptures or sculptures can realistically represent, changing the reality creative or be completely abstract.
The range of materials used range from classic materials such as stone, wood, ivory, metal, clay and plaster, over glass, various plastics and textiles and paper. Synonyms term for the wood sculptor ( wood ) wood carver and for metal sculpture and metal designer or artist blacksmith.
Forming a relief is fixed to the architecture and architecture as the carrier. Depending on the spatial shape differentiates high relief, low-relief and bas-relief.
Monuments are indicative of ancient models independent full sculptures and architectures with urban development terms or in parklands. Here close to modern installations, installations, land art or conceptual art.
Sculpting is the old name for driving a three-dimensional metal work eg metal sheets made of copper or other metals. The concept of sculpture is here extended to monumental embossed works as well as the workshops ( ateliers ) and firms that perform such (metal sculpture or -die forging, see Wrought or wrought copper ). In monumental designs, such as the Quadriga in Berlin, the work is driven internally stabilized by supporting scaffolding. The blowing technique, the work of a Gürtler is called.
In contrast, in the art foundries, the liquid metal, mostly bronze, cast by the sculptor designed to model and then created in the foundry mold. In most cases here the techniques of sand casting and the casting wax are used.
- Phidias (5th century BC), Athenian sculptor, decisive part in the sculptures of the Parthenon.
- Polykleitos (around 480 BC until the late 5th century BC), a Greek sculptor, known for his bronze sculptures.
- Praxiteles (4th century BC), a Greek sculptor, probably most important sculptor of the Late Classic.
- Chares of Lindos, Greek sculptor, created, inter alia, between 304-292 BC, the monumental sculpture " Colossus of Rhodes", one of the Seven Wonders of the World as - cast bronze.
- Niccolò Pisano ( 1205/07-1278 ), Italian sculptor, an important representative of medieval sculpture.
- Donatello ( to 1386-1466 ), Italian sculptor, champion of the Italian sculpture of the early Renaissance.
- Veit Stoss (around 1447-1533 ), champion of the German late Gothic.
- Tilman Riemenschneider (1460-1531), champion of the German Renaissance.
- Michelangelo (1475-1564), Italian sculptor, main masters of the High Renaissance.
- Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571), sculptor of Italian Mannerism.
- Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), sculptor of the Italian Baroque.
- Antonio Canova (1757-1822), Italian sculptor, leading proponent of Italian classicism.
- Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764-1850), German sculptor, an important representative of German classicism.
- Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844), Danish sculptor, leading proponent of European classicism
- Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), French sculptor, pioneer of modern sculpture.
- Aristide Maillol (1861-1944), French sculptor, pioneer of modern sculpture
- Ernst Barlach (1870-1938), German sculptor, representative of realism and expressionism.
- Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), Romanian sculptor, pioneer of modern sculpture.
- Wilhelm Lehmbruck (1881-1919), German sculptor
- Hans Arp (1886-1966), German - French sculptor, painter and writer
- Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), French-American artist object
- Alexander Calder (1898-1976), American sculptor of the modern kinetic art
- Henry Moore (1898-1986), British sculptor, breakthrough to abstraction
- Marino Marini (1901-1980), Italian sculptor of the modern
- Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966), Swiss sculptor, an important representative of the sculpture of Surrealism.
- Fritz Wotruba (1907-1975), Austrian sculptor, a prominent representative of geometric abstraction.
- Joseph Beuys (1921-1986), German painter and sculptor
- Eduardo Chillida (1924-2002), Basque sculptor
- Sol LeWitt (1928-2007), American sculptor, one of the main representatives of Minimalism
- Alfred Hrdlicka (1928-2009), Austrian sculptor, painter and graphic artist who worked mainly in Germany.
- Fernando Botero ( b. 1932 ), Colombian painter and sculptor
- Richard Serra (b. 1939), American sculptor, leading proponent of minimalism in sculpture.
- Bruce Nauman ( b. 1941 ), American sculptor and conceptual artist
- Anish Kapoor (born 1954 ), Indian sculptor, representatives of monumental art.