Stz'uminus First Nation
The Chemainus ( Shts'um'inus ) or Chemainus First Nation is a Canadian First Nation, which belongs to the family of languages of the Salish. She describes herself as Stz'uminus First Nation. The tribe had in September 2012 exactly 1,203 registered members.
The name comes from the Hul'qumi'num word " Tsa- mee - nis ", meaning " bitten chest ". The horseshoe-shaped bay and the nearby hills of their traditional residential area looked like a lying on his stomach man with a gaping wound in his chest.
Originally, the Chemainus First Nation lived there, where is the town of Ladysmith today. Since about 3000 BC they lived in the Kulleet Bay ( in the Yellow Point area ), at the Shell Beach ( opposite the port of Ladysmith ) and the Coffin Point near the Elliot Beach Park.
From 1884 their country was increasingly sold. The Chemainus First Nation and their villages, Shts'um'inus, Thuq'mi'n and Hwkwumluwhuthun were 13 Reserve relocated to modern-day Chemainus Indian, one of four reserves who inhabited the tribe today.
Reserves have already been identified since 1867, but joined as British Columbia Canada in 1871, 2,675 acres in the Cowichan Valley and 269 in Chemainus Valley were first established as reserves. Malcolm Gilbert Sproat, the competent Indian Land Commissioner, visited today Hul'qumi'num area, and delivered on January 14, 1877, a report from. It conducted a census by, and found that 114 " Chemainus Indians" lived in the bay and 153 " Lick- a- mun Indians" [ Sicameen ] in the Oyster Bay, and that except for a small fishing station at Chemainus ( Say- la- quas no. 10) no reserves were available. He wondered at this, " how well Indians and whites have behaved under these circumstances." To indicate which area claimed the Chemainus, they had marked trees, and indeed in the entire area between the two bays. Sproat this appeared to be too much, and he offered them in 1800 at Acre, a country where both groups should live. Some settlers had an area at Oyster Harbor claimed, but where there was a village. Sproat offered them 300 acres on the western end of the harbor point on, including the old village and formerly cultivated by the Indians ground to a stream, can be taken in the salmon. Here Sproat confessed that the country attractive to white settlers was not just because the ground would infertile after the first harvest, as close to the surface there was a layer of clay, which was called by the settlers " hardpan ".
Elsewhere, however, argued a Mr. Thomas, the reserve lies between his country and the river, so that his cattle could not drink. The Indians, however, were present for only a short time in the year, and they do not even cultivated the land. Sproat refused to cut the area of the reserve.
As from 1913, the McKenna - McBride Commission visited the reserves, she suggested that, of the two reserves of the " Tribe Chemainus, Chemainus and Sickameen bands ", "No. 10 - Fishing Station, 15:00 acres, and No. 11- Fishing Station, 81.00 acres "," No. 12 -On western shore of Oyster Harbour, at its head, Oyster District, 296.00 acres " and" no. 13 -Between Oyster Harbour and Chemainus Bay, Oyster District, 2692.00 acres should remain. " Legal force received these proposals to the Commission until 1923.
Chemainus 13 is 1082.3 ha by far the largest. It is located between the port of Ladysmith and the Stuart Channel. At the port Oyster Bay is located 12 106.9 ha are also two smaller reserves the Chemainus River and southeast of Chemainus together with 37 hectares total, the reserve well in 1126 ha chief is CJ (Peter ) Seymour. 436 Of the 1,203 recognized tribal members ( September 2012 ) lived outside the reserve, 656 inside and 111 in other reserves.
The Chemainus First Nation is one of the ten members of the Naut'sa Mawt Tribal Council, representing together the tribes of the Burrard, Snuneymuxw, the Halalt, Homalco, the Klahoose First Nation, the Sliammon and the Tsawwassen First Nation to the Government of British Columbia.
In addition, include the Chemainus to the six tribes of the Hul'qumi'num language group, which include even the Cowichan, Halalt, Penelakut, Lyackson and Lake Cowichan.