Symphony, K. 19a (Mozart)

The Symphony in F major, K. 223 Appendix (19a ) composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1765 in London.


In the early 1980s, the previously -lost Symphony KV 223 and KV Annex 19a found in Munich in a sentence orchestral parts in Leopold Mozart's handwriting. Of the existence of the work they had known before the one due to the incipits of the first set on an envelope containing the autograph of the Symphony, K. 19 ( in addition also the beginning of a Symphony in C major, probably KV 19b, this is still lost). In addition, the incipit was also listed in a catalog from the publisher Breitkopf & Härtel.

The symphony was probably listed as the opening piece for one of the concerts on February 21 and May 13, 1765 Haymarket Theatre as part of Mozart's trip to London (see KV 16). The first performance since the rediscovery took place at the opening of the new building of the Neue Pinakothek in Munich on March 23, 1981.

About the Music

Instrumentation: two oboes, two horns in F, two violins, viola, cello, double bass. In contemporary orchestras, it was also common, even without separate listing bassoon and harpsichord (if available in the orchestra ) to reinforce the bass line or use as continuo. It is noteworthy that Mozart has the chords for the harpsichord continuously advertised in this symphony as a figured bass, whatever else he almost never did.

Performance time: approximately 12-14 minutes.

In the terms used here based on the sonata form is considered that this scheme in the first half of the 19th | Designed century (see below) and therefore only with restrictions, this symphony can be transferred. Sentences 1 and 2 correspond more the two-part form, in which the second part of the sentence is considered as a modified run of the first ( " exposure "). - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.

First movement: Allegro assai

F Major, 4/4-time, 93 cycles

The set opens with a radiant, broad melody in the first violin, which gets a wide - area- tone color by sustained wind chords and tremolo of the other strings. This " first theme " is achttaktig of four measures each antecedent and consequent, the antecedent acts fanfares. The transition to the second theme (bars 9-18 ) consists of two motifs that occur mixed in the strings. The first has a strong march -like, the second a droning character. After strikes chord on the dominant C major and a turning point in the form of a quarter-note rest is the second theme in the piano one (cycle 19 ff.) It is named after the " question (Piano) - response ( Forte tutti ) - built principle is repeated and then goes into a passage with tremolo in the violins and broken chords in the bass on. The final section (bars 31 ff ) contains two Vorhalts motifs and finished the first part of the sentence ( " exposure " ) in measure 40 with chords, to C.

The second part of the sentence begins with the first theme in the dominant of C major. The antecedent is here extended to five bars, and instead of the consequent follows a tremolo modulation passage that leads with dominant seventh chords table acting on C minor, D major, G minor and F major back to C major. An over exposure new motif follows in measure 51 in the first oboe ( in ascending order ) and is picked up from bar 54 in the violins ( descending). He goes one march-like tone repetition ahead in dotted rhythm. The imitation motif according to the following cycle 9 ff is now available in G Minor, as well as the adjoining " lyre motif ". In bar 67 there occurs a shifting of our G minor to F major. The further course of the movement corresponds structurally to the exposure. Both phrases are repeated.

Wolfgang Gersthoferstrasse highlights the Allegro assai, " perhaps the most convincing header in the first group of Mozart symphony. "

Second movement: Andante

B flat major, 2/4-cycle, 60 cycles without oboes

The set is kept consistently in the piano. The strings dominate the horns accompany with sustained chords or short splashes of color. The " first theme " Although based only on a simple figure with auftaktiger Zweiundreißigstel - phrase and repeated notes, but gets through the pizzicato in the Viola, who similarly accompanied by broken chords of a mandolin and the contrasting, bottoming bass sounds its distinctive timbre. After the repetition of the theme directly the in the dominant key of F major follows " second theme " ( measure 9 ff ), which also has a stereotyped -like character, but by the " mumbling " accompanied by second violin and viola ( continuous semiquavers ) differs. In the final section (bars 20 ff ) with the same accompaniment a simple, singable legato movement plays the first violin over a pedal point in the horn and bass on F down. The first part ends in bar 24 and is repeated.

The second part ( bar 25 ff ) starts with the first theme in the dominant F major, but the repetition is in G minor. From bar 33, a new trailing motif follows also in G minor with Sekundschritt up and down, offset that occurs in the violins and viola / bass and even out down is ( measure 37 ff.) In bar 40 enters with the first theme in the tonic B- flat major, the " recapitulation ", which is similar except for the omission of the repetition of the first theme structurally exposure. From the overall structure is similar to the Andante created the first set.

The special atmosphere of the set was also emphasized by Neal Zaslaw: " Despite the simple structure and the conventional themes of this set developed a sophistication and a zest that are amazing for a composer in childhood. "

Third movement: Presto

F Major, 3/8-time, 104 cycles

The set is constructed as Rondo:

  • Chorus and motif A: 1-8 clock with fanfarenartigem beginning ( start broken F major - chord ) and sixteenth - run - " Answer ", both with string unison. Neal Zaslaw feels reminded of bagpipe music and suggested that Mozart was so pleasing to the English public.
  • First couplet clock 9-32 with two motifs ("B and C") in the dominant C major: the first sold - ascending, the second pendulum with character;
  • Refrain clock 33-48 with Fort spin drying of motif A to G minor;
  • Second couplet clock 49-64 as a variant of the first couplets: Motif B in G Minor, from bar 57 skidding to F major. Surprisingly occurs from bar 64, the head motif of the chorus on, but remains in the form of a chromatic embellishment of C ( Clock 67 /68) stuck sets again and runs in a turn chromatic pendulum movement to C in pianissimo from (cycle 71 ff.) After a short break, the general motif pendant is then in energetic Forte in the tonic F major one. Such surprise effects Mozart used later, for example, in the final movements of the violin concertos or the Symphony K. 201
  • Refrain clock 93 ff as at the beginning, end of sentence with Akkordmelodik. The sections of clock 1-8 and 9-104 are repeated.

References, notes

Web links, notes

  • Symphony KV Anh 223 (Mozart): Score and critical report in the New Mozart Edition