Struggle is a struggle and weight training with full body use without further aids.
At the Olympic Games of antiquity, the struggle was under the name " Pale " to the disciplines of the pentathlon. In addition, the rings was also single discipline. In antiquity, the athletes competed in the wrestling to naked. They were not divided into different weight classes. The one who first threw three times to the ground the enemy, was the winner. Unlike today, there was no wrestling ground fighting.
Since the beginning of the modern Olympic Games (1896 ) Wrestling is part of the Olympic program and will remain at least until the olympic 2028. Since the 2004 Olympic Games Freestyle Wrestling is also an Olympic sport for women.
Since 1950 official annual World Championships will be held in rings. However, exceptions are the years in which take place Summer Olympic Games.
As we grapple with two styles can be distinguished:
- Freestyle: The entire body, from head to foot, is considered as a working surface. This applies in the state - as well as in ground combat ( see main article freestyle wrestling ).
- Greco-Roman ( briefly also Greco): Only the body above the belt line is considered as a working surface. This applies in the state - as well as in ground combat ( see main article Greco Roman Wrestling ).
The rules aim to aim to bring the enemies of the state in the bottom layer and with both shoulders on the mat. Here come as techniques throws, spinning and levers used. Punches, kicks, kicks and choking are prohibited. The battle line and evaluating the handle combinations accepts the judge or a court martial of three adjudicators. The player who has collected the most points at the end of the time or previously brought to its competitors on both shoulders has ( " shouldered " or " pinned ").
2005, a new regulation was introduced by the World Association FILA: It is internationally and in tournament fighting in three rounds of combat, in team battles is two times three minutes wrestled with 30 seconds rest. The winner is the sixth minute with the most points. The shoulder victory ended continue the fight immediately.
A round wins one prematurely, the achieved completely independent of the total score, two three-point ratings or a five-point rating. A difference of six points also ends the round. Finished neither of the two counterparties, the round early, wins on points the wrestler with the fewest warnings. In another tie, chooses the highest individual rating - these are still the same height, determines the final rating earned by the winner.
The course of a single round is different in the two styles. In Greco- Roman wrestling at first a minute and 30 seconds standing position, then 30 seconds ground combat, where a wrestler of Obermann / attacker. Obermann is basically the wrestler said after the one in the previous paragraph criteria, round winner would be. When absolute tie is decided by the judges, in the team competition, who was the leading or more active fighter and who may be Obermann. Achieves a wrestler in the 30 seconds in which he is Obermann, no standings, so gets his opponent, with the score at 0-0, wins a point and wins the round. In tournament or individual competition will be in the first round, for an absolute tie, the wrestler in the red jersey first Obermann. Is it in the second round after a period of one minute and 30 seconds after all of the above criteria again 0:0 is the wrestler blue jersey Obermann. Should there be a third round and again reign absolute tie, the lot decides about the Obermann ( flying disc or coin with red and blue side). If a wrestler have achieved against the base arranged fight a point it is automatically Obermann. His opponent, after the period of time no extra score if no action is taken by the top man. From the B- youth of the Obermann / attacker has to put his hands on the back of the opponent or to take the wrong lifters.
In freestyle, there is no arranged bottom layer. Was achieved before the time no rating, the more active wrestler must grasp the opponent's leg in the team competition. He has to obtain a rating from the kick-off at 30 seconds. His opponent has the task to prevent or achieve a score itself. The first rating determines the winner of the round. If no vote is reached, the defending wrestler wins the round. In the individual competition the clay on the comprehensive Ringer decides.
The rule changes are intended to make a more active struggle and above all a more exciting and thus more effective audience Sport from the rings. Both opponents are forced to act more quickly than before, to prevent the points of the opponent. However, the rule changes are highly controversial.
Currently apply to the men following weight classes: 55 kg, 60 kg, 66 kg, 74 kg, 84 kg, 96 kg and 120 kg.
- The split grip is a grip in which one grasps the opponent between the legs and jerky highly tears. It is preferably applied to lift a located in the Bank opponent or rotate to achieve as rating points. The split grip can be very uncomfortable for a wrestler.
- The " package handle " free style is grasped an arm of the opponent around the neck with the. With the other arm is detected the leg of the opponent to his knees and pulls it up so that he can not free himself from this grip. This handle may be referred to as a shoulder throw.
- The arm stroke is a handle in the state fight in which the wrestler pulls on an arm of the opponent and the opponent tearing down with this direction mat. Here, there are several variations, such as the type to pull the arm over his shoulder and go even on his knees to force the opponent from the state down. (Basic version)
- The Kopfhüftschwung is similar to the arm stroke, but the head is here clutching the arm pull and run a similar movement to, usually to convey here the opponent from a standing position on the mat with one arm.
Demarcation from other sports
Rings (English " Wrestling" ) is not to be confused with the " Professional Wrestling" ( German: " wrestling "), a particularly popular in the United States show sport that follows different rules.
In many countries of the world the rings are similar sports traditional folk sports, for example, in China ( Shuaijiao ), in Turkey ( Öl-Ringkampf/Yağlı Güreş in Kırkpınar ), Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan ( Koshti / ادعا ), Korea ( Ssireum ), Mongolia ( Boke ), Iceland ( glima ), Japan ( sumo ), in Austria ( Ranggeln ) and in Switzerland ( swing ), as well as the belonging to Spain Canary Islands ( Lucha Canaria ) and on the to Italy belonging Sardinia ( Istrumpa ).
Rings will be played as a team sport, here two teams compete against each other. Each team is usually per weight class on two starters, since both freestyle and Greco-Roman style wrestling is. The individual rounds won will be added to the overall result. Exception of the shoulder victory, technical superiority, task and disqualification of a wrestler. These are counted in the total result 4-0 for the winner. If both wrestlers disqualified from the judge, no points are awarded.
Once a year the German Team Championships for women are held, in which invariably selected teams of different states compete against each other. The fights take place only in free style.