Aileu is a district of East Timor with an area of 676.02 km ². Capital of the district is the same in Aileu classified as urban Suco Painting. The administrative management unit was established only in the last years of the Portuguese colonial era.
Aileu located in the highlands of the north-west of East Timor and is one of the two districts without access to the sea. The district has an area of 676.02 km ². The mountainous landscape is 350-1500 m above sea level. Aileu bordered to the north by the district of Dili, on the east by Manatuto, on the southeast by Manufahi, to the south Ainaro, on the west by Ermera and to the northwest by Liquiçá.
Traditionally, the four seasons can be distinguished in Aileu. From mid- October to April rainy season, May and June there is the cold season. The July and August are very windy and the dry season occurs between mid-August and mid-October. The average temperatures are due to the amount significantly lower and the humidity is lower than in the coastal regions of East Timor. When maximum temperature 29 ° C is reached, at night can drop up to 4 ° C, the temperature.
In Aileu 46 569 inhabitants ( 2011) live. Almost half of them live in sub-district Aileu, the most densely populated Laulara is 117.8 inhabitants per square kilometer (2010, 2004: 90). The overall population density is 68.9 inhabitants per square kilometer. The average age is 17.7 years (2010). The population in the district Aileu is thus younger than the Landesdurschnitt ( 18.8 ).
In Aileu the women most children in East Timor, where anyway the fertility rate in 2004 was among the highest in the world get average. The subdistrict Remexio holds with 9.92 children per woman nationwide the top, Laulara is 9.90 children in second place. In Subdistrict Aileu there are still 9.25 and Liquidoe "only" 7.88 children per woman ( national average 6.99). Between 1990 and 2004, the population grew by 3.08% annually. The infant mortality rate in 2002 was in Laulara at 122 deaths per 1,000 live births ( 1996: 134), in Aileu at 105 (153 ), in Liquidoe at 97 (148) and in Remexio at 94 (138). The national average was 98
Two-thirds of the population in the district is a native speaker, the national language Mambai. The rest mainly Tetum, especially the dialect Tetum Prasa. In the northeast, on the border with Manatuto also Galoli was formerly traditionally spoken. However, the 2004 census found only six native speakers in the district. Taking into account also the second language, so to speak Tetum 41.2 %, 34.2% and 9.5 % Portuguese Bahasa Indonesia.
In 2004, 88.4 % of the population Catholic, which is well below the national average. 8.6% are Protestant and 2.7% are still supporters of traditional animistic religion Timor. She still has a strong influence. In some villages, such as Hohulo and Erhetu, there is still practicing, spiritual centers. 0.2 % of the population are Muslims.
Of the residents who are five years or older, visited in 2010 40.6% (women: 39.9 %, men 41.2 %) school. 26.6 % ( 24.0 %, 29.0 %) have left the school. Never been to school have 32.1 % ( 35.4%; 29.1 %). The proportion of the latter is slightly higher than the national average in Aileu. There are also more students. 5.4 % of the population, however, have only visited the pre-school, after all, almost two-thirds of primary school. Secondary schools have completed about one- third of the population. A diploma or college degree can show only 2.3 %; which is about one-third of the national average. The illiteracy rate in 2004 was 60.9 % (women: 64.4 %, men 57.7 %).
Southeast of the city Aileu was the kingdom of Dailor, one of the many traditional kingdoms of Timor, which were ruled by a Liurai. It appears, as Caimau, on a list of Afonso de Castro, a former governor of Portuguese Timor, who performed 47 kingdoms in 1868. In January 1894 Dailor concluded with Portugal a written contract on his vassal status to the colonial power.
1903 broke in Aileu from a revolt against the Portuguese, but which was quickly put down. 1912 served as Aileu Portuguese base during the rebellion of Manufahi. Only in the last years of the Portuguese colonial era Aileu was as an independent administrative county ( conselho ) from Dili separated.
Aileu 1975 was one of the centers of the Independence Party FRETILIN. Here the FRETILIN leaders gathered after the coup attempt by the UDT on August 11 to auszuholen to strike back. After the Indonesian invasion, a few months later, many residents of the city fled Aileu, which was occupied on December 29 of the Indonesians, in the mountains. The towns of the region remained several years uninhabited. Initially, only the area around the city Aileus and the highways to Dili, Gleno / Ermera and Maubisse were occupied. In Remexio created a base de apoio in which the civilian population fled was settled by the resistance movement Falintil. From September 1977, the Indonesian army invaded the West Aileus and occupied him completely until February 1978. Between May and June 1978, the East Aileus fell under Indonesian control. The base in Remexio was destroyed, the people dispersed or captured. During the occupation, the region's inhabitants were resettled to Maubisse in the district Aileu. Therefore, there were tensions between long-time residents and new settlers. The situation was also explosive, as the residents Maubisse and Aileu were previously hostile to traditional.
After the 1999 referendum, in which the population voted for independence from Indonesia, there was nationwide outbreaks of violence by pro-Indonesian militias. In Aileu destruction was particularly bad in the sub-districts Liquidoe and Laulara. The capital Aileu was severely affected. Only a few buildings remained intact. Water and electricity supply was destroyed in the entire district and about 5,000 people had fled to West Timor. Finally, the international intervention force INTERFET was dispatched and placed East Timor under UN administration. Fighters of the East Timorese resistance movement Falintil were quartered in the town Aileu to February 2001. Then began the 600 fighters with training to soldiers of the new East Timor Defence Force.
Between 2006 and 2008 Aileu was one of the regions where rebel leader Alfredo Reinado Alves was hiding with his men until he was killed in an attack on the governance on 11 February 2008. The rebel movement broke up then.
The district administrator is appointed by the state government in Dili. 2001, this was Maria Paixão. The Office is currently owned by AS Martinho Matos clothed (as of February 2014).
In the elections to the Constituent Assembly, and later the National Parliament emerged from that FRETILIN won in Aileu the most votes, so they got the former direct mandate. In the parliamentary elections in 2007 succeeded the Coligação ASDT / PSD to be strongest with 46.4 % of votes in Aileu. In the parliamentary elections in 2012 the Congresso Nacional received since Reconstrução Timorense ( CNRT ) 52.5 %. Only in Aileu succeeded the CNRT in this election to get an absolute majority in a district.
In the first round of presidential elections in 2007 was Francisco Xavier do Amaral of the ASDT in Aileu combine 64.9 % of the vote, but resigned as the nation's fourth-placed clubs from. In the second round of the nonparty José Ramos -Horta won 93.9 %. 2012 Ramos -Horta won in Aileu the first ballot, but resigned as the nation's third place out. The second round went in Aileu to the election winner Taur Matan Ruak with 70.8 %.
According to the census of 2010 51 % of all inhabitants, the ten years of age or older work ( national average: 42%). 1% are unemployed ( 5%). Since there is no industry, operate 83.7 % of households farming, animal husbandry 95.3%. Mainly grown for their own consumption. As commodity coffee, oranges, mangoes and other fruits are cultivated. 69 % of families in the district grow coffee, which Aileu one of the centers of the Timorese coffee cultivation is. Here you find the Subdistrikte Laulara and Ailleu at the top. For sale is the coffee harvest at the Cooperativa Café Timor ( CCT). Most important food crop is cassava, which is grown by 79% of households (production 2008: 2,940 tonnes). Just as often, you build on corn ( 753 t). In Subdistrict Aileu is rice ( 931 t) by irrigation in the river valleys cultivated (20 % of all households in the district ). Centers are here, the river and the Daisoli Aileuflusssystem in Suco Seloi Craic. In the hills and mountains of corn and beans are grown. Besides grow even coconuts and other vegetables and fruits ( 2,342 t). As pets people keep chickens mainly (2010: 23 687 in 76 % of households) and pigs ( 12,638, 82%). In addition, goats ( 5928.40 %), cattle ( 4,697, 31%), horses ( 2,462, 24 %), water buffalo ( 1,782, 12%) and sheep (830, 3 %).
Due to drought, pests and plant diseases took place in 2007 in East Timor to acute food shortage that persisted mainly in the district Aileu long. 2008 caused heavy rainfall, as early as 2001, further losses at harvest.
Economically exploitable forest areas there is not the district. Last stocks there are in valleys and on slopes of Subdistrikte Laulara and Remexio. In Remexio there last remnants of sandalwood. Otherwise, trees can only be found as shade coffee plantations. The inhabitants use the wood as a building material and fuel, which further drives deforestation. Reforestation programs are started. Natural resources are not encouraged in Aileu, apart from clay for ceramics and bricks. In Liquidoe there is a non-serviced marble deposits.
The local radio station is Radio Communidade Rai Husar (Radio Aileu ) on FM 97.1 MHz.