Area Control Center#Center operations
ATC is an outdated, but in German-speaking still common name for the aeronautical mobile service, so a radiocommunications service between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations, or between aircraft stations with each other.
Civilian aircraft radio
The civil aviation radio is operated as a radio in parts of the VHF frequency range to the aeronautical mobile service worldwide in the Radio Regulations Radio Regulations ( Radio Regulations ) are assigned. The to use radiotelephony procedures have become common worldwide by the Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation.
ATC uses the frequency range from 117.975 to 137 MHz. Through the initial screening of the radios with a channel spacing of 50 kHz were made in this frequency range 360 voice channels. In the 70 years this has been extended by a reduced channel spacing of 25 kHz to 720 channels. The much higher demand for channels now led to the development of radio devices with a channel spacing of only 8.33 kHz; this results in a tripling of the usable radio channels. The new frequencies of 8.33 kHz raster are currently being used in Europe only through FL 195, but are expected to be introduced from 2018 also in the lower airspace.
ATC is always modulated in amplitude. This has the consequence that, while the quality of the connection with respect to a frequency modulated compound is inferior, but still radio messages can be understood with a relatively bad signal to noise ratio, while this would not be possible in the use of frequency modulation (see FM - threshold). Radio communication is performed in the " change talk ," that is, that can only be sent each of a radio station at a time, since simultaneous transmissions from different locations are incomprehensible at the same frequency as a rule.
Military aircraft radio
Research Digital ATC
The EU research project SANDRA ( Seamless Aeronautical Networking through integration of Data links, Radios, and Antennas ) examines digital communication channels compared to the conventional analog flight radio.
Language and pronunciation
The global international traffic in wireless agreed language is English; is accordingly also for the voice in the area of the German Air Traffic Control the English language standard. For the purposes of the visual flight ( VFR) and German is spoken in Germany.
The base stations of the uncontrolled airfields (call sign "INFO ") are not operated by an air traffic control provider. There, German is the default language; on frequencies allocated for this can also English are spoken.
Single letter, for example by aircraft identifiers, taxiway designations or airspace categories are pronounced using the ICAO alphabet, even with the use of German as a language radio.
The pronunciation of numbers and figures following special rules: "two" becomes " two ", "three" is pronounced as " tri", nine as " niner " and " thousand " as " thousand ". Are whole hundreds and whole thousands spoken "natural", so it is called " flight level two - thousand - four - hundred feet " or " altitude two- thousand -four -hundred feet". Other numbers must be expressed by its individual digits ski-in/ski-out zwo-sieben/runway two- seven; Heading zwo-eins-null/heading two-one -zero, QNH eins-null-eins-neun/QNH one-zero -one - niner.
As the flight radio has one in English, although most uniformly formalized language form, but is still organized country-specific, it can lead to problems when pilots use the language that is not understood by others, nationwide foreign pilots. Besides English, typical languages are permitted in many countries to the radio traffic may also occur in these languages with air traffic control in the respective countries.
Radiotelephony aeronautical station / aircraft station
The voice communication from ground stations civilian airfields for aircraft stations of aircraft is usually on radio frequencies or radio frequency channels from the VHF air band 117.975 to 137 MHz. Each civilian airfield in Germany is assigned to at least one radio frequency for voice communication floor board / air-ground by the Federal Network Agency for telecommunications in general. Each assigned frequency is coordinated across Europe by the ICAO, and thus protected from unintentional interference.
A controlled by air traffic controller is being called in Germany with the place name and the addition TOWER ( TOWER or in German-speaking radio traffic ), uncontrolled place one calls with the airport name and the suffix INFO.
The general management of the radio communication follows the established rules and so-called talk groups ( solid formulations for specific message types ), knowledge of which must be proved in the test on a voice radio certificate. The high degree of standardization helps to simplify radio communications. So the necessary information with the utmost security are transmitted from mistakes and misunderstandings.
At uncontrolled airports, the flight line are only traffic information, but no instructions. However, exceptions are possible for direct security. During the approach, the pilot report at least five minutes before the court, give her land known projects, learn the landing direction and then report their position in the traffic pattern.
In controlled places the traffic is directed to the airstrip as well as in the control zone around the airfield around by the tower controller. Controlled aerodromes often also have an apron control to coordinate the movements on the apron, and in most cases, a roll control for taxiing to and from the start / runways. Tower, roll control and apron control have their own radio frequencies, respectively.
At larger airports, there are at the abbreviation " ATIS " (Automatic Terminal Information Service ) an automatic, emitted at a specific aerodrome ATIS radio frequency space information (weather, active slopes, air pressure QNH and any other current features). Pilots who want to take off or land under instrument flight rules (IFR ), this must refer to the current ATIS Aufsprache; Pilots flying under visual flight rules ( VFR), indeed must not, it should at the very least. Each new ATIS broadcast is marked with updates made by a continuous letter from the ICAO alphabet.
In Germany the aircraft radio is subject to the secrecy of telecommunications. Holding a radio operator certificate have to maintain the secrecy of telecommunications secrecy.
Radiotelephone Operator's Certificate
Main article: Radiotelephone Operator's Certificate (aviation )
To use the aeronautical radio walkie certificate is required.
The PMR testimony is introduced in Germany as " Restricted Radiotelephone Operator's Certificate valid for the aeronautical radio service " ( BZF I and II BZF ) and "the General Radiotelephone Operator's Certificate for the aeronautical radio service " ( AZF ).
When BZF II is tested exclusively in German, so it only entitled to the aircraft radio in visual flight within Germany.
When I BZF the capability to carry out the aeronautical radio in visual flight ( VFR) is tested in English and German, in addition also the understanding of technical English texts.
The AZF entitled in addition to performing radio communications under instrument flight rules (IFR ); it requires the examination of the BZF I or II BZF.
There is also the BZF E and the AZF E. These correspond to the BZF I or the AZF, but only entitle for the implementation of voice communications in English.
Exempt from the duty to testify are:
- Air radio stations on board airships, air sports equipment and gliders within the air spaces G, E and F.
- Aircraft stations during training,
- Radio stations in motor vehicles that are operated exclusively for connection to aircraft stations in airships, air sports equipment and gliders,
- Ground stations, which are used exclusively for the transmission of flight operations reports,
- Holders of appropriate permits valid military.
For more details, Regulation on air radio certificates FlugfunkV (PDF, 58 kB).
In addition to the aeronautical mobile service exists a radionavigation service in the aviation industry. Here, signals from specially equipped ground stations for displaying navigational instruments used on board.
The signals of the non-directional beacon ( NDB ) are sent on frequencies 255-526 kHz, ie in the region of the long and medium wave.
The VOR ( Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range - VOR) and the localizer ( localizer ) the instrument landing system (Instrument Landing System - ILS) Send in the VHF range. The frequencies of these stations are from 108 to 117.975 MHz, therefore, directly adjacent to the radio frequencies.
The likewise for instrument landing system glide path belonging operate in the UHF range of 328.6 and 335.4 MHz.