The Axe historique ( German Historical axis) of Paris is the great urban visual axis from the center through the west of the city: it is not only a main road, but the visual and monumental orientation line, now its geographical base in the tower of the church of Saint- Germain l' ' Auxerrois east of the Palais du Louvre - but historically in the central pavilion of the 1871 destroyed Tuilerienschlosses. After 1989, the axis has been extended by the Grande Arche in La Défense to the next loop His opposite the Castle of Saint- Germain -en- Laye. The urban thoroughfare of Paris is also called voie triomphale (German way of Triumph ).
At the bell tower of the church of Saint- Germain l' Auxerrois east of the Louvre beginning, the Axe historique running west first through the Louvre and the Tuileries, on the Place de la Concorde, the Avenue des Champs- Élysées and the Avenue de la Grande Armée to Porte Maillot. In Neuilly -sur -Seine, this straight line extends further over the Avenue Charles de Gaulle, the Pont de Neuilly, and finally crosses the Parisian district of La Défense.
Geographically, the axis is continued until the Croix de Noailles in the forest of Saint- Germain -en- Laye. Between the Porte de Maillot and La Défense, the axis along the national road runs 13
The axis includes the minor direction changes to important buildings: the Cour Carrée of the Louvre differs by 6.5 degrees from the Axe historique from. The Grande Arche at La Défense in central perspective differs from also by 6.5 degrees from the historic axis, since there had to be considered static running traffic tunnel. However, this does not change the direction of the axis is caused.
The beginnings of this axis go back to the year 1564, when Caterina de ' Medici is a widow's residence, the Tuileries, was built with regular landscaped garden beyond the Paris city walls. At this, more precisely at the central dome of the pavilion Tuilerienschlosses, was based from 1640 André Le Nôtre, the landscape gardener and landscape architect of the palace at Versailles, when he had to create an avenue to the west.
After the construction of the Champs- Élysées only a few houses between the Tuileries Gardens and the new road were. However, this was during the tenure of Louis XV. removed, after which the then resulting space was first named. Today, the square as Place de la Concorde is known.
On the square Place du Carrousel between the extreme wings of the Louvre by Napoleon I in 1807 was the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel built. The 1836 completed the Arc de Triomphe to the Place de l' Étoile (since 1970 Place Charles de Gaulle) responded by forming the outermost point of the axis.
The axis has been further extended by the construction of the Avenue de la Grande Armée towards the west of the city limits. She ended up in the small suburb of La Défense, which was named after the defense of the city against the Prussians in 1871. This suburb has developed since the 1950s to a business district. In the 1980s, President François Mitterrand initiated the construction of a modern version of the Arc de Triomphe. The Grande Arche de la Fraternité was established and inaugurated in 1989.
Monuments on the Axe historique
- Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel
- Obelisk of Luxor at the Place de la Concorde
- Arc de Triomphe at the Place Charles de Gaulle
- Grande Arche