The Beriev R-1 (Russian Бериев Р -1 ) was a Soviet jet powered flying boat in shoulder-wing monoplane design. The first flight took place on 30 May 1952. The R-1 was the first jet-powered flying boat of the Soviet Union. The machine had a pressurized cabin, ejection seats for the pilots, as well as to defend a remote controlled tail turret. The cockpit was thereby set for a better view of the pilot to the left. The tail was performed in T-shape. The hull was designed in two stages. Equipped with radar machine was completely weather resistant.
After the Second World War began in OKB -49 in the development of the project R. Starting from the wing design of the Beriev Be -6, the requirement of a jet flying boat by the Soviet Navy and of the jet aircraft developments in the OKB Ilyushin and Tupolev worked from one May 1947 a draft from.
The official request was published on 12 June 1948, provided for a range of 2000-2500 km, three -man crew and a speed of 800 km / h. The aircraft should carry a radar device. The task was the education and the fight against enemy targets. These four 20 mm cannon and a bomb load of 2000 kg were provided.
On June 10, 1950, Dummy was done. The originally planned Rolls-Royce Nene engines were replaced by the Klimov WK -1 is now available, which generated a higher thrust. They were built in long panels that were at the bend of the wing and so had a maximum distance from the water surface. In addition, the installation of a booster - rocket engine was possible. Instead of the 20 mm cannons 23 mm types should be used. In addition, the possibility was created to carry two 500 kg mines.
In November 1951, the first prototype was ready, and on 24 November began the first experiments in the water. At 165 km / h was thereby uncontrollable oscillation about the pitch axis, the prototype was nearly destroyed. They called the phenomenon Hydrodynamic instability threshold to the solution of extensive research was needed. The final solution was in a system that allowed the flow of air under the hull between the two stages boat.
The first flight was vibration in the rear. Also, it came during high speeds on the water also to vibrations, the assumptions critical proportions. On 3 October 1953, the prototype crashed during landing, but could be repaired. Already at that time the project was at risk. A quick solution to the problems did not appear likely. The development of land-based long-range reconnaissance aircraft was flying boats in the future generally seem superfluous.
It was decided, however, to transfer the knowledge gained in a more efficient project from which the Beriev Be -10 was born. The flights of the modified R-1 were resumed on July 18, 1953. It had been mounted improved slat. Eventually, the air flow system to be amended so that it also prevented the vibration. It was considered to equip the machine with a swept tail, which were not pursued after the construction of a dummy. Mass production of this type was no longer provided at this time.
The modified machine continued to be used easily in the test mode until in February 1956, which had to be written off after a R-1 aground due to an emergency landing.