The Couvent des Cordeliers or Couvent des frères mineurs ( Monastery of the Friars Minor ) was founded in Paris in 1230 monastery, whose Roman Catholic religious order ( ordo fratrum minorum ) is modeled on the written by Francis of Assisi monastic rule. ( for the Rule see: Secular Franciscan Order )
The clad in coarse gray cloth brothers this mendicant order were determined by the cord, with whom she strangled her long frock, called the Cordeliers ( rope carrier ), whence the name of the monastery was derived, located on the site of today École de Médecine in the 6th district was located. According to the color of her dress, they were also referred to as frères gris or gray brothers.
The monastery was built outside the 1195 built by King Philip Augustus city walls on a plot of lying in the fields just outside the city of Abbey of St. Germain -des- Prés, the Abbot Eudes had left the Friars Minor. It was in the west by a southward leading the way (now rue Monsieur le Prince) and limited in the north- west through the forecourt of the monastery church. This later led to a road that took after the reform of the Order (1502 ) the name of rue de l' Observance (now rue Antoine Dubois ). The northeastern boundary formed an earlier track, the future rue des Cordeliers (now rue de l' Ecole de Médecine ), where the monastery entrance was. This road connected the city gate Porte Saint- Germain (now N ° 87 Boulevard Saint- Germain ) with the rue de la Harpe (now the Boulevard Saint -Michel ), up to which stretched the monastery district.
From the monastery, the late-Gothic building is only obtained from the end of the 15th century, which housed the dining room and about the monks' dormitory downstairs. It is - apart from elsewhere preserved monastic churches - one of the rare examples of medieval monastic architecture in Paris. The building from 1835 houses the Museum dedicated to the anatomy of Dupuytren.
The original monastery cloister existed until 1877. He was worn on the occasion of the establishment of a hospital in view of its poor condition and erected faithfully recreated using the old substance.
After the Monastery Plan of 1774 arose between the cloister and the rue des Cordeliers, the powerful three-aisled, sechzehnjochige and southeast facing monastery church behind the apse spanned the refectory. A little further east stand the theology school, which was joined at least two with their gables to the rue de la Harpe swept houses that were also accessible from there. One of these houses was recorded in 1620 already in 1604 by Henry IV transferred into the great hall of the cloister royal library. On the rue de la Harpe bordered the monastery district in the north of the church of Saint -Côme -et -Saint- Damien, on the south by the Collège de Justice. The remaining southern area took the sprawling monastery garden to the infirmary.
The first Friars Minor of St. Francis could be 1217-1219 in Saint -Denis, north of Paris down, from where they moved to the Montagne Sainte -Geneviève. There, the Dominicans had some years earlier been founded at the postern Saint -Jacques, the so-called Jacobin monastery. While the Dominicans were settled within the city walls of Philippe Auguste, the gray brothers from 1223 planned on a site located beyond the postern in Vauvert building a house, which collapsed even before its completion. Then about Abbot Eudes de Saint-Germain -des- Prés to the west the property described above.
Probably in 1236, Alexander of Hales entered the Couvent des Cordeliers one, moved his chair of theology in the monastery cloister, where he founded the older Franciscan school. He was followed by St. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio. Not only his teacher, the monastery came to a high reputation and generous patronage. For example, donated Joan of Evreux, the wife of King Charles IV, the brothers in 1341 a chapel and an infirmary and let Charles V, who had convened in the great hall of the cloister, in the absence of his father as Dauphin in 1356 and 1357, the Estates-General, build them several buildings. Even Anne of Brittany supported the monastery. In the 17th century Louis XIV moved the seat and place of meeting of the Equestrian Order of Ordre de Saint -Michel from Vincennes in the Couvent des Cordeliers.
After the outbreak of the Revolution the monastery was closed in 1790. His church and part of the monastery buildings were then temporarily founded by Camille Desmoulins club as a meeting place, which was called for this reason, as a club of the Cordeliers. As of 1795, the monastery housed a hospital, before it was demolished in the 1st Empire 1802 to the cloister, the refectory and the dormitory to the construction of the practical school of medicine faculty ( École Pratique de la Faculté de Médecine ) and a new hospital with 140 beds to make room, which was supervised by the brothers of Charity, the already initiated the nearby Hôpital de la Charité. Both buildings were completely renovated in 1877-1900.
Today the Franciscans are members of the 14th arrondissement in Paris in the Community of the Couvent Saint -François de Paris in the Rue Marie Rose ( N ° 7), about twenty brothers live in the.
Monks and teachers
- Alexander of Hales (around 1185-1245 ), founder of the first Franciscan School
- Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (1221-1274), Italian theologian of scholasticism, who later became Minister General of the Franciscans (1257-1274)
- John Duns Scotus (c. 1266-1308 ), Scottish theologian and philosopher of scholasticism
- Jacques Du Bosc ( 17th century), preacher of the King ( prédicateur du roi ), opponents of the Jansenists
- Jean -François BURTE (1740-1792), martyr of the revolution