Yellow Zistrosenwürger ( Cytinus Hypocistis ), illustration

The plant family of Cytinaceae belongs to the order Malvenartigen ( Malvales ).


There are parasitic plants, more specifically referred to them as holoparasites, also called full- parasites or full parasites. This refers to vegetable parasites that are no longer able to carry out photosynthesis because they lack chlorophyll. You obtain all necessary nutrients via haustoria from the roots of their hosts. Roots are not present. Leaves are really only bracts of inflorescences and no true leaves, they must be compared, alternate or whorled usually arranged, reduced membranous scales. Stomata are not available.

Recognizable as the actual plant are only the inflorescences / infructescences. There are monoecious ( monoecious ) or dioecious ( dioecious ) getrenntgeschlechtige species. In most racemose, sometimes capitate inflorescences are the flowers together. The unisexual flowers are small to medium in size and radial symmetry. In some species the flowers smell unpleasant. The perianth consists of a tube fused four to nine sepals, petals absent. The male flowers contain eight to 100 rare fertile stamens, with no stamens are visible, so the anthers are seated. The pollen grain usually has two or three, rarely four apertures and is COLPAT or Porat. In the female flowers are four to eight, rarely up to 14 carpels to a inferior ovary fused with an equal number of chambers as carpels. In each ovary chamber in parietal placentation 25-100 orthotropic, bitegmische, tenuinucellate ovules. The long style ends in a truncated scar. As pollinators, ants and birds can be specified.

There shall be lots of berries with many seeds. The tiny seeds contain no endosperm and seed maturity only a rudimentary embryo.


The Cytinaceae family was erected in 1824 by Achille Richard in Dictionnaire classique d' histoire naturelle, 5, p 301.

To the family of Cytinaceae include only two genera with ten types:

  • Bdallophyton Eichler: With one to four species in Mexico and Central America. Bdallophyton americanum ( R. Br ) Harms
  • Cytinus baroni Baker f: It is endemic to Madagascar Toamasina province. It grows in forests at altitudes between 500 and 1000 meters.
  • Cytinus capensis Marloth: It occurs only in the Capensis.
  • Cytinus glandulosus Jumelle: It is endemic to Madagascar Antsiranana Province. It grows in thickets at altitudes between 1500 and 2000 meters.
  • Yellow Zistrosenwürger ( Cytinus Hypocistis L.): It occurs in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands.
  • Cytinus malagasicus Jumelle & H. Perrier: It is endemic to Madagascar Toamasina province at altitudes between 500 and 1000 meters.
  • Cytinus ruber Kom: It is common in the Mediterranean. Hosts are the cistus (Cistus ) and Halimium species.
  • Cytinus sanguineus ( Thunb. ) FOURC. It occurs only in the Capensis.
  • Cytinus VISSERI Burgoyne: It comes only in the Capensis ago in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and in Swaziland.

The position in the system is controversial. Even with APG to be guided both as part of Malvales and without classification. Other authors so they put in an order Rafflesiales a taxon only with full parasites.


  • The Cytinaceae in APWebsite family. ( Section systematics and description)
  • The Cytinaceae at the DELTA by L. Watson & MJ Dallwitz family. ( Description section )
  • Information to the family of Cytinaceae at parasiticplants. (English )