Gudkov studied at the State Pedagogical Institute his home town of Kolomna and then taught English for several years. 1978-1980 he did his military service. He then worked for the city committee of the Komsomol. From 1982 he was a member of the KGB, first in Kolomna, from 1989, in the KGB headquarters in Moscow. In 1992 he left the secret service with the rank of colonel.
After some years led a private security company, Gudkov 1999 candidate in the parliamentary elections for the first time for the Duma, but he lost almost the former cosmonaut German Titov. According to Titov's death, he was then nachgewählt 2001 as a candidate of the People's Party in the Duma, since he belonged continuously to the Russian parliament, since 2007, as a Member of the Just Russia party. In September 2010 he took part in the planned establishment of the party " Forward Russia", which was denied but the Ministry of Justice official registration.
After the parliamentary elections of 2011, Gudkov actively participated in the protests against the alleged election fraud and acted as organizer of demonstrations and rallies against the government. In the course of an investigation for tax evasion and money laundering, the Attorney General Yuri Chaika at the Duma proposed to investigate the professional activities Gudkows in September 2012. After several days, the competent Commission of the Duma declared Gudkov had followed business practices that are prohibited for a member of Parliament. So he had been involved in the management of a private construction company and have security companies, which are owned by members of his family, gives through his work as Chairman of the Subcommittee of the Duma for the statutory regulation of the activities of private security services advantages. Since this is incompatible with the status of a Member, the Commission recommended to withdraw his seat Parliament Gudkov. Gudkov dismissed the charges against him. All its activities correspond to current law. On September 14, 2012, the Duma eluded by a majority vote Gudkov his seat so that he lost his political immunity.
Gudkov is married and has two sons, his son Dmitri is also member of the Russian parliament.