Duma (Russian Дума, German thought, in Old Slavonic and Russian dumat ': think ) is generally the name of a consultative body or entity, such as a city council, but their meeting house. Today Duma and the State Duma (Russian Государственная Дума / Gossudarstwennaja Duma ) denotes usually the first chamber ( People's Chamber ) of the Parliament of the Russian Federation - in contrast to the second chamber of parliament, the Federation Council.
State Duma in Imperial Russia
The introduction of democratic institutions began to Imperial Russia with the formation of local governments in the country ( Zemstvo ) in 1864 and in the cities (city Dumas ) 1870. On a state level, existed until 1905 only, consisting of members appointed State or Imperial Council, primarily made up of members the aristocracy.
According to the St. Petersburg Bloody Sunday and its aftermath agreed Tsar Nicholas II with the October Manifesto of 1905, the creation of an elected assembly, the Duma, as a second chamber adjacent to the Imperial Parliament to. These Duma, the liberal reformers had placed great hopes, was largely dependent on the power of the Tsar. The Government reserved the right, during the session breaks to rule by emergency regulations that had to be only subsequently confirmed by the Duma. The selected first parliament in the Russian Empire on 27 Apriljul. / May 10 1906greg. opened by the tsar. The first two Dumas were dissolved (1906 and 1907 ), the fourth Duma sat at the beginning of the First World War temporarily from their meetings again after only a few months.
The elections were carried out under an electoral law, which resembled the Prussian three-class franchise. After the dissolution of the second Duma in 1907, a new electoral law was introduced which greatly disadvantaged the cities, the landless peasantry and the non-Russian minorities.
After the October Socialist Revolution in 1917 the Duma was replaced by the Congress of People's Deputies, which was, however, against the boards or the party leadership of the Soviet Union largely powerless.
The Duma in post-Soviet Russia
Establishment of the Duma
After the dissolution of the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 21 September 1993, after his victory over the rebels in October 1993, it issued a new constitution before: It is based on the principle of separation of powers, and on December 12, 1993 was the voting age population in a referendum approval. The period provided for in the Constitution bicameral Parliament consists of the Federation Council, which represents the 83 federal subjects of the Russian Federation, and out of the 450 MPs scoring State Duma. By December 2003, one half of them by list, the other directly elected ( grave right to vote) was; now but the composition of the Duma by a proportional representation is determined ( with a restrictive clause 7% from 2016 5%). Each deputy is elected for a four year period ( Article 96). Russian citizens can be elected with 21 years in the Duma ( Article 97). The State Duma must approve the prime minister appointed by the president, the government the power to dismiss and passes laws, which agree with the Federation and must be signed by the President. The Duma has a comparatively weak position against the President in the semi-presidential system of Russia - similar to the French Parliament of the 5th Republic.
The first State Duma under President Boris Yeltsin and President of the State Duma Ivan Rybkin was elected in the parliamentary elections on December 12, 1993 for only two years.
In the parliamentary elections on 17 December 1995, the Duma was elected for a regular term of four years. The political spectrum of Russia was very fragmented. 49.5 % of voters voted for one of the parties that the 5 - could not reach % threshold. Strongest party, the CPRF was 22.3 % of the vote, followed by the LDPR ( 11.2%). The party " Our Home Russia" received 10.1%, Yabloko 6.9%.
In the parliamentary elections on 19 December 1999, the CPRF was 24.3 %, the pro-Putin lists " unit " (= " Bear" ) and " Fatherland - All Russia" with 23.2 % and 13.3 % together However, more. In the democratic spectrum, the Union of Right Forces was 8.5%, Yabloko 5.93%. The block Zhirinovsky was also represented with 5.98% in the Duma.
In the fourth parliamentary elections on December 7, 2003, the parties were, the government under Vladimir Putin were close - win ( for example Yedinaya Rossiya United Russia ), the absolute majority of the seats. The right-wing nationalist Liberal Democratic Party ( LDPR ) also won votes, while the opposition Communist Party of the Russian Federation, strongest faction lost. The Western-oriented liberal parties Union of Right Forces and Yabloko failed due to the five-percent hurdle. Among the 450 deputies there were 44 women.
In the fall of 2007 before the parliamentary elections following groups were represented in the Duma:
- United Russia (301 seats out of 442)
- Communist Party of the Russian Federation (47 )
- Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (29 )
- Rodina [ People's Patriotic Union ] (33 )
- People's Patriotic Union " Rodina " (11) ( eight members of the Rodina have split from the party and formed his own group, but have kept the same name )
- Non-attached (21 )
The Duma 2007
From the parliamentary election on December 2, 2007 following distribution of seats went forth:
Of which male / female
Compared to the situation before the elections, the relative seat share of the ruling party United Russia has increased slightly to 70%. With the election of the representatives of Russia's development along the lines of the Western democracies have completely disappeared from the parliament. Previously, this had been yet represented as a non-attached MEPs in the Duma. The opportunity to be selected as a single candidate into parliament, but was abolished before the election.
The Duma 2011
From the parliamentary election on December 4, 2011 was the following distribution of seats out:
The proportion of seats for United Russia fell to 53% ( after 70 % in 2007), of which the other three previously also represented in the Duma parties benefited: The Communist Party rose to 20.4 % (after 12.7 % in 2007). Fair Russia to 14.2 % ( after 8.4 % in 2007) and the Liberal Democratic Party 12.4 % ( versus 8.9 % in 2007).
After the election, there were massive protests and demonstrations against alleged fraud.