- S 112
- M 107
- MP 25
- FP 24
- C 23
- SD 20
- V 19
- KD 19
The Swedish Parliament ( Sveriges Swedish Riksdagen or riksdag ) is the Swedish Parliament. From 1867 to 1970 he consisted of two chambers, since it is a chamber.
The Swedish Parliament has 349 members. Its current composition is derived from the 2010 election, the Reichstag President 's Per Westerberg.
- 3.1 The President of the Reichstag and the Presidents' Conference
- 3.2 Reichstag committees
- 3.3 plenary
- 3.4 Reichstag authorities
Stands the Reichstag
Since the 15th century, the Reichstag was the meeting of the representatives of the four estates ( nobles, priests, burghers and peasants ) in the Kingdom of Sweden. He was next to the king the highest constitutional institution of the empire, however, occurred usually only every three years. His 1809 decreed Act of Succession is now the oldest part of the Swedish Constitution.
1865 a bicameral system was adopted. The new chambers were first elected in 1867.
The choice of the First Chamber was indirectly through the State Assembly ( county council ) and the largest municipal councils. So should " education and property " ( " picture och ingen förmögenheten " ) are represented. Selectable were only men over 35 with real estate assets worth at least 80,000 rix-dollars, or an annual taxable income of at least 4,000 Reichstalern. Only about 6,000 people in Sweden met these conditions. This census suffrage was until 1911, with women, companies and legal persons had the right to vote. The First Chamber had terms of office of nine years, one-ninth of the members were elected annually.
Also for the election of the Second Chamber was from 1867 a census suffrage: the right to vote were Swedish men over 21 with real estate in the tax base of over 1,000 rix-dollar or a steuerpflichtgen annual income of more than 800 thalers. About 5.5 percent of the population or 21 percent of all adult men had the right to vote for the Second Chamber. Even in 1909, there was indeed a general but not equal suffrage for the second chamber. The electoral reform of 1909 increased the number of electors to about twice.
Founded in 1889, The Swedish Social Democratic Workers' Party was the first party in Sweden. The then 84 Liberal MPs in the second chamber founded in 1900, the Liberal Coalition Party. One of the core objectives of both parties was the introduction of general suffrage. The first and only first Social Democrat in the second chamber, Hjalmar Branting, was only elected at the 1896, because the Liberals supported him there.
The voting question remained current for decades. The 1907 Enthroned King Gustav V supported the transition to a parliamentary democracy. With the 1911 election, the universal and equal suffrage for the Second Chamber was first introduced only for men.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917 raised the concern that these could also spread to Sweden, the pressure to democratize. The king had now decided, among other things, against his own wife, in the enforcement of social democratic demands for democratization through electoral reform, with.
With the 1921 election, the women were entitled to vote for the first time. The final reform took place in 1923: the census suffrage was abolished for the first chamber, now the members were elected indirectly by the municipalities and provinces. Thus, the larger the influence of the parties.
Abolition of the two-chamber system
The indirect election of deputies resulted in a delay in the implementation of the popular will, as the voting committees already held office up to four years; also the deputies were elected for nine years and thus for a relatively long time. In an extreme case, could up to 13 -year-old election results have an impact on policy.
The Social Democrats were able to achieve an advantageous position in the First Chamber in the 20th century. After they had agreed nevertheless, the abolition of the First Chamber, unicameral with four- percent threshold was introduced from the election in 1970. From 1970 to 1976, the Swedish Parliament had 350 deputies. In the general election in 1973 both blocks each received 175 mandates, so that decisions had to be taken by drawing lots ( " lottery Reichstag "). From the elections in 1976, the number of deputies was reduced to 349 in order to avoid a repeat of this situation.
Election of the Reichstag
The Reichstag is elected every fourth year on the second Sunday in September ( up to and including the 2010 election on the third Sunday). Coinciding with the general election and the elections to the provincial assemblies and municipal councils are performed.
The electors are Swedish citizens who have reached 18 years of age on election day. The election is by proportional representation, with a blocking clause applies: This gives a party mandates, it must be nationwide four percent of the vote or join in one of the 29 constituencies at least twelve percent of the votes.
Since the 1998 election, voters can assign preferential votes. Achieved a candidate at least eight percent of the total votes of the party in the constituency (from the election in 2014 five percent), it is placed at the top of the list of candidates of his party and thus increases his chance of a parliamentary mandate.
Organization of the Reichstag
The Reichstag President and the Presidents' Conference
At the top of the Reichstag is the president of the Reichstag ( talman ), who is elected for a full term. He coordinates the work of parliament, heads plenary sessions and represents the Parliament outward at home and abroad. In the formation of a government he may propose a candidate for the office of Prime Minister; It is incumbent upon him to appoint members of the government and formally to dismiss. When the king and his deputy should be prevented, they are provisionally represented by the President of Parliament until the Parliament has determined a Regent ( riksföreståndare ). The Reichstag president is committed to a neutral official guide in political issues does not comment on the matter and does not participate in the voting: His deputies duties performed by a substitutes from the list of candidates of his party. 2006 and 2010, the choice fell on Per Westerberg ( Moderate ).
The Bureau also consists of three vice-presidents. You may continue their deputies activity, but may not enroll in debates to speak, unless they conduct a meeting. 2010 were elected: Susanne Eberstein (S ), Ulf Holm (MP ) and Jan Ertsborn (FP).
The Reichstag President shall be assisted by the Conference of Presidents. It consists of the Committee Chairman, the Chairman of the Reichstag management and a representative of each parliamentary groups.
The Swedish Parliament has 15 technical committees plus the EU Committee ( EU Nämnden ). Apart from the constitutional committee, the committees reflect the classification of the divisions of the ministries. In addition, other committees may be formed as needed. Each committee has 17 members and is occupied by the thickness ratio of the fractions. The most important task of the committees is to advise of applications and government bills. In connection with hearings may be held, including government members to be heard. Mostly ministry also be consulted.
The EU Committee was created after the EU accession of Sweden in 1995 to join the discussions between Parliament and the Government on issues of EU policy. The government is required to consult before making important decisions in Brussels with the Committee. This is especially true in the run-up to EU ministerial meetings and meetings of the European Council.
The deputies do not sit in the Chamber sorted by faction but by constituencies.
For certain tasks, the Reichstag authorities has set up. The most important include the four Justizombudsleute who supervise the work of state and local governments. You can investigate complaints from citizens, authorities inspect and act as special prosecutor investigating the violation of official duties in the public service.
The auditors of the Reichstag check the use of government funds as part of the state administration.
The Sveriges Riksbank is subordinate to the Reichstag. Your Control ( riksbankfullmäktige ) is elected by the parliament, which in turn elects the Executive Board of the Riksbank.
Extraordinary election of the Reichstag
The government has the right to invite tenders for new elections during the legislative session. This must take place within three months of the publication. The early elected Reichstag replaced no later than 15 days after the election date the resolution. He held office but only until the end of the regular term, there is then a scheduled election.
Seat of the Swedish parliament is the Riksdagshuset ( " Reichstag House "). It is located on the island Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm at Gamla Stan district. Was built in the building from 1897 to 1905.
Coat of arms
In October 2013 a discussion broke out about the coat of arms used by the Riksdag since 1992. Under the Law on the Swedish national coat of arms are only three crowns in gold permitted, but not crowns in blue color, as can be seen in the coat of arms currently in use.
Current composition of the Reichstag
The distribution of seats after the last election in 2010 is as follows:
In this case, 57 people were elected by people choice; the remaining members were given their place on the respective party list.