Gran Turismo ( Italian), English Grand Touring, French Grand Tourisme - short GT and freely translated " great ride " (see Grand Tour ) - describes the purpose of the original GT cars, so relatively comfortable and well- motorized sports cars that are suitable for long-distance race are.
Original GT cars
GT cars in the original sense differed from the Spartan pure sports car with greater convenience, greater interior space and a higher fitness to be able to easily travel with them over long distances.
Such vehicles were with a passenger ( " Schmiermaxe " ) used in endurance racing, especially in the Italian classics Targa Florio or Mille Miglia, where from 1927 to 1957 on public roads up to 1600 km were cross driven through Italy, similar to the Carrera Panamericana in Mexico. In closed-course was abandoned soon on the passenger because he was hardly useful as a mechanic or navigator there. Typical field of activity of GT cars were or have since 24 -hour race, for example, in Le Mans or Daytona, and at 1000 km race ( 1000 km Nürburgring, Monza or Spa -Francorchamps ).
Epitome of pure-bred GT cars were the models of Ferrari after the war the 1950s to the 1970s, the GT made in the type designations, such as the 250 GT, the 250 GTO or the 365 GTB. But also various Lancia models like the Aurelia and Fulvia can be mentioned alongside some Alfa Romeo and Maserati here. English Bentley dominated at times in Le Mans; later Jaguar and Aston Martin built typical GT cars. Mercedes had already released in the late 1920s with the SSK an offshoot of the GT- luxury sedans. After the war, was rebuilt in 1952 the largest available engine, the six-cylinder from the 300 sedan, in a lightweight and windschlüpfiges sports car chassis and a beat with this 300 SL, the much more motorized competition, particularly on the very long distances.
Volume manufacturers often develop GT- type vehicles by facilitating powerful engines limousines or cut (coupé ) or light vehicles with the technology of larger series equip.
The FIA put in racing down the rules, which the GT cars had, for example, from start to correspond to the mid- 1960s. Among other things, the following was prescribed:
- Open or closed body with two doors and at least two equal-sized side-by- side seating, interior width of at least 110 cm, fender organically connected to the body,
- Trunk (not spare ), at least 65 × 40 × 20 cm,
- Windscreen made of laminated glass of at least 90 × 25 cm (height between the seat cushion and the upper edge of the disk of at least 85 cm), rear window is at least 60 × 10 cm; Side windows made of safety glass or rigid plastic,
- Rear view mirror 100 cm ²,
- Equal-sized wheels and a completely assembled spare wheel in the car.
GT racing vehicles had street cars be approvable, which had to be made in each of the regulations specified minimum number. 1965 was, for example, a production number of at least 100 units since the start of series. Later were prescribed 1000 or even 500.
GT racing series in the presence of
The Automobile Federation FIA wrote in 1997 for the FIA GT World Championship several GT classes. The classification was changed in the following years, several times, for example by eliminating the rather be classified as prototypes GT1 after 1998 and later renamed the remaining classes in GT and N- GT. So since 2005 there is the relatively near-standard GT2 and GT1 with a more modified vehicles. 2006 wrote the FIA with the race organizers SRO another GT racing series from. The FIA GT3 European Championship was based on the newly GT3. Moreover existed until 2004 in other racing series that has picked up the modified technical rules of the 24 - hour race at Le Mans, in reference to the various categories of the FIA GT classes GTP and GTS.
The terms GT or GTI or GTC, GTS and GTR be used for most sports vehicles of a particular class in various model series, such as Porsche 928 GT; Ford Mustang GT; VW Golf GTI, Opel GT Roadster, BMW 5 Series Gran Turismo and Toyota GT86. Many of the vehicles are now designated with the abbreviation GT have, as the term is used only as a label with a genuine GT in the original sense little in common - see the Golf GTI (Gran Turismo Injection) at Volkswagen or Astra GTC ( Gran Turismo Compact) at Opel.