Porsche 928 S4
The Porsche 928 is a sports car, the Porsche produced from 1977 to 1995. He is a Gran Turismo car with a V8 front engine and rear wheel drive. Transmission and Diffential lie in a common housing at the rear (transaxle ).
The 928 was the top model of Porsche, which meant to replace the early 1980s, the Porsche 911.
- 3.1 50 years Porsche ( 1981)
- 3.2 928 S4 Clubsport (1988 )
- 4.1 four-seater (Porsche 942)
- 4.2 combination
- 4.3 Outstanding versions
Beginning of the 1970s began with Porsche development work on a new model, the thoroughly different from the Porsche 911. Instead of an air-cooled engine in the rear a water-cooled eight-cylinder front engine was provided. The transmission was sitting at the driven rear axle. This led to a favorable axle load distribution and has also been used in the Porsche 924 and later the Porsche 944.
The engine with 4.5 liter displacement made 176 kW (240 hp). He was a new development for which there was no precedent in racing car from Porsche. Block and cylinder heads of the V- engine with 90 degree cylinder bank angle were made of light metal. The journal on the crankshaft were not in a plane ( " crossplane "). A toothed belt drive to a single overhead camshaft per cylinder bank. The two parallel overhead valves were operated by bucket tappets, the combustion chambers were wedge-shaped. Later, there were also four-valve engines with four overhead camshafts (928 S4). The twin-disc clutch sat at the motor, the force was transmitted through the transaxletypische rigid, rotating with the engine speed shaft to the built in front of the rear axle gear.
Front and rear suspension, with wishbones, there were, in front a conventional double -wishbone suspension with anti-dive. The rear axle was developed from scratch at the Porsche Development Center in Weissach. You could balance the load changes occurring during driving in curves through toe- and thus increase the driving safety. This was achieved by substantially by a precisely calculated sag on rubber mounts of the front lower control arm. This axis was also known as the Weissach axle. A similar, slightly simpler construction, there were 1982 Mercedes -Benz W 201 ( five-link axle ).
The shape of the 928 differed from the previous Porsche models. Characteristic features of the car are the round pop-up headlights and the heavily rounded rear end. The shape of the 928 was modern when it was introduced in 1977 and proved over the entire duration of its construction as timeless, so the car was built almost unchanged until the end of production in 1995. At the presentation of the shape of polarized 928: Some observers praised the clarity of lines, others felt they were "terrorist". A particular feature of the back were withdrawn C-pillar and the arched rear side windows. The Porsche designers picked up on an idea that had realized for the first time Richard Teague in 1975 with the AMC Pacer. The design of the 928 was influential. It was used in the following years different manufacturers as inspiration for your own models. Among them was the Zagato Zeta 6 (1983) and Rayton Fissore of Gold Shadow.
The Porsche 928 was unveiled at the Geneva Auto Show as "the great new sports car from Porsche " in March 1977. The body was designed to lightweight to keep the car's weight as low as possible in spite of the extensive equipment. For this, the doors, fenders and hood made of aluminum were produced. The 928 was significantly longer, wider and flatter than the former 911 The bumpers were integrated into the body and consisted of a metal profile for shock absorption and a streamlined front and rear aprons. The pop-up headlights were sunk in the rest position to the back of the fender.
The eight-cylinder V- engine with a displacement of 4474 cc ( 4.5 liters ) carried out 176 kW (240 hp) at an engine speed of 5500 rpm. The only stronger Porsche was the 911 Turbo, the 191 kW (260 hp) offered at this time. As a mechanical fuel injection Bosch K-Jetronic was used. The 928 could be ordered with a five-speed manual or with an externally supplied by Mercedes -Benz three-speed automatic transmission. Standard had the car 15'' - 16'' or alloy - hole disc wheels in a design sometimes referred to as " Telefonwählscheibendesign ".
The vehicle was equipped luxurious than other Porsche before, such as for example with a detergent dosing pump for the windscreen washer system or available as an extra air conditioning that could cool even the glove compartment other than the interior.
The autumn 1977 delivered sports car won many awards for its advanced design and its equipment when it was introduced. The readers of the Stuttgart-based car magazine mot voted him the most sensible sports car of the year and at the British Motor Show in Birmingham, he was awarded a gold medal from the Institute of British Carriage and Automobile Manufacturers, which assessed all sports cars in the disciplines of design, quality and comfort. A special position falls to the election of the Car of the Year in 1978, as the Porsche 928 as it is still only sports car managed to win this prize.
The copies of the vintage 1979 experienced little change compared to the models of the previous year, except that there was now an electrically operated sunroof, electrically adjustable seats, color-keyed side protection molding. New were the side turn signals on the front fenders.
The 928 remained in 1980 are visually unchanged, but its engine was switched from regular gasoline to premium gasoline. "Our goal is to provide evidence that one with a large-displacement eight -cylinder engine can come to reasonable consumption levels ," said the former chief technology officer Helmuth Bott and lifted the now higher compression ratio forth. By this measure, the fuel consumption could be reduced by about 25%.
The 928 was intended to replace the beginning of the 1980s, the 911 according to the ideas of the former Porsche CEO Ernst Fuhrmann. This goal was not achieved because the 928 rather than Gran Turismo in the original sense of the term because could be regarded as a classic sports car. He was taller and heavier than the 911, even if the 928 at the launch of his time was technically very far ahead and better in many respects car may have been, he could not prevail against the 911. Despite all the advantages, which had 928 has to offer, most of Porsche customer vowed to continue on the 911, even though (or perhaps because) this was much more difficult to control at the limit to oversteer compared to the comfort-oriented and balanced 928 because of its pronounced tendency. The 928 therefore always came to the role of the fast and comfortable travel car, while the 911 occupied the position of the pure sports car with racing qualities. As a result of the unsuccessful model policy Ernst Fuhrmann was replaced as CEO by Peter W. Schutz at the end of 1980.
In 1981 the interior of the vehicle has been upgraded. These included, for example, a fuel consumption display, a cassette compartment and an additional storage compartment on the left under the instrument panel. The 928 was now also the four-spoke steering wheel of a year earlier introduced 928 S.
In 1982, the production of the Porsche 928 was discontinued and only the 928 S continues to be produced.
928 S ( 1980-1986 )
For the model year 1980, the 928 received a stronger parallel model, which was shown at the IAA in Frankfurt in September 1979. The 928 S had a more powerful engine, the 4664 cc from a max. Power of 221 kW ( 300 hp) delivered. Was achieved this performance gain due to the larger displacement and a higher compression ratio of 10:1, which is why the car had to be refueled with premium fuel. With this engine the car reached a top speed of 250 km / h and acceleration from a standstill to 100 km / h in 6.6 seconds. The journal Auto, Motor und Sport said: " On the highway, the big Porsche plays his trump cards ".
Distinguishing features were the redesigned alloy wheels, small front and rear spoiler to improve airflow around and now includes electrically adjustable exterior mirror on the passenger side.
In sharp extra cost compared to the normal 928 such as air conditioning was included. The interior was upgraded again in 1981, among others, by standard electrically adjustable seats. From model year 1982, only the 928 S was available with the same engine. In order to reduce the engine noise and increase ride comfort, the engineers at Porsche used a new hydraulic engine mounts to reduce engine vibration and a hydraulic timing belt adjustment and dampening. The interior has been slightly revised and the green tinted windows all round belonged to the standard equipment. To increase occupant safety a windscreen made of laminated safety glass was installed in the middle of a 0.5 mm thick polyurethane film was attached.
To underline the performance and reliability of the 928, Porsche was in 1983 driving on the high-speed track in Nardo a standard 928 S a total of 24 hours. This put in the time a distance of 6033 kilometers back, reaching an average speed of 251.4 km / h
In 1984, the performance of the S 928 has been increased to 228 kW (310 hp) at 5900/min. The maximum torque increased from 385 to 400 Nm. The mechanical Bosch K -Jetronic the previous models was replaced by a Bosch LH Motronic injection system with fuel cut-off and electronic map transistor ignition, the fuel consumption could be further reduced.
This car could be ordered with either five-speed manual and four-speed automatic with a new, which ensured a force fit almost like a mechanical clutch. This could be achieved with the automatic transmission similar good acceleration as with the manual gearbox. Adequate support when braking in hazardous situations offered for the first time in a Porsche as extra available anti -lock braking system. A further increase of safety in the winter brought the heated washer nozzles.
The buyer of a Porsche 928 S model year 1985 acquired a vehicle which had continued to gain in comfort. For example, the seats offered more lateral support and extended support for the thighs as well as numerous electrical adjustment. The now directly attached to the seat belt buckles for the seat belts were the best solution according to findings in the accident research. Great drivers bestowed the 15 millimeters lowered seat rails more headroom. New was also integrated as a fine wire in the glass of the windshield radio antenna. Also during gear changes, changes were noticeable. The five-speed gearbox with modified synchronization could be switched faster and more accurately.
From 1986, the 928 S was standard with ABS. In addition, the car was given a newly developed brake system with four-piston fixed calipers, which achieved an even better braking performance. Increased comfort for quick trips provided a quieter exhaust system. These technical improvements underlined the promise of the Porsche CEO Protection, said: " What Porsche builds first class must be ".
1985, a five-liter engine with four- valve technology was introduced, with the stricter emissions laws in the U.S. could be better maintained. From the year 1986, a vehicle with a controlled catalytic converter was also offered in Germany. The engine of this model was based on the already introduced in the U.S. version. However, since only regular unleaded gasoline was widely available in Europe, the compression was lowered to 9,3:1, so that the motor is only 212 kW made (288 hp).
The end of 1986 the production of the Porsche 928 S ran out after six years of production, there was provided a new model for the following year.
928 S4 (1987-1991)
The 1987 was marketed as a successor to the 928 S Porsche 928 S4. The new model of the engine and the vehicle body are further improved. The engine delivered from 4957 cc an output of 235 kW ( 320 hp) at 6000 rpm. According to the base was responsible for driving development head of department Paul Hensler of already used in the S 928 with catalyst V8 engine with four-valve technology. In contrast to this, the new engine was designed to use unleaded petrol and delivered with and without a catalyst, the same performance. The 928 S4 could be ordered both with five-speed manual as well with four- speed automatic. However, most of the customers preferred the version with automatic transmission.
It was further changed the shape of the vehicle and the drag coefficient (Cd ) of 0.34 improved. This was achieved by a modified bow with new fog lights and auxiliary headlights, a modified front spoiler with holes for brake ventilation, a redesigned tail section with other lamps and a modified spoiler and underbody paneling. Also, the cooling air control has been newly developed. The moved by servo motors flaps were only enough air flow through the engine compartment, as was required for cooling of the units and for air conditioning. This also contributed to lower air resistance.
The 928 S4 achieved better performance than previous models. The car needed to accelerate from zero to 100 km / h only 5.9 seconds Top speed was 270 km / h and 265 km / h with the automatic transmission vehicles.
In 1988, waiting for the 928 S4 with only minor changes, mainly to the interior. The standard equipment was revalued by an operative electronic cruise control and a speaker sound package. As additional extras there were ruffled leather seat covers, and on request, the necessary preparations were made for the installation of a C-network phone.
" The 928 is a diamond that will shine even more by a fine-tuning ," were the words of the Porsche Development Board Ulrich Bez, who had taken over from Helmuth Bott.
A year later, the 928 model range to the sporty GT has been extended. Thus, the S4 was given the role of comfortable touring sedan. As a consequence, the 928 S4 was only with the four-speed automatic available. This was revised so that was shifted down when stopping no longer in the first, but only in second gear.
Other new features were the instrument cluster with a trip computer and the electronic information and diagnosis system with standard integrated tire pressure monitoring system.
In 928 by default an electronically controlled locking rear differential was installed in 1990. This PSD (Porsche - locking differential ) had a zero to 100 percent, reaching degree of locking the improved traction and driving stability of the vehicle. The S4 got the twin-pipe exhaust system, which was previously reserved for the GT in the same year.
As of the 1991 model was offered in order to take account of the further increase safety awareness among customers for the Porsche 928, an airbag system. First extra charge, the airbags have been in the same model year as standard.
In 1991 the production of the Porsche 928 S4, as well as the sporty variant 928 GT has been discontinued.
928 GT ( 1989-1991)
Porsche wanted to serve the customers' needs better and offered from 1989 to 928 in two different versions. Launched in 1987 Porsche 928 S4 should raise the comfort-minded customers and remained virtually unchanged. For the sporting and ambitious driver, Porsche introduced the 928 GT a new. The five-liter engine of this car made 243 kW (330 hp) at 6200 rpm. The sports car was delivered exclusively with a five-speed manual transmission.
This stood out from the outside by a 928 GT logo on the rear, a dual exhaust, and by 1988 produced by the 928 S4 Clubsport known wide 16'' forged wheels (so-called design -90 - wheels) from S4.
The GT got a similar sporting character as the previously available in Clubsport version. But the buyer did not have to give up the luxury accessories. In addition, you could streamline between a sporty or select a comfortable shock absorber setting.
The magazine Auto, Motor und Sport characterized the GT model with the words, " A harmonious all-round sports car, which also distinguished by a high-quality bodywork that once four people accommodate to need."
The 928 GT received all the technical improvements that have been implemented in the S4 during its short production time.
928 GTS (1992-1995 )
In model year 1992, the Porsche 928 GTS was introduced, which replaced the S4 and the GT. The new car had a bigger engine, the (5.4 liter) developed at 5700 rpm from a displacement of 5397 cc, a power output of 257 kW (350 hp).
The chassis and the brakes were revised and improved. The GTS was to distinguish it from its predecessors, S4 and GT by the widened rear and the continuous lighting strip. The rear wing was now painted in body color, the mirrors had a new shape. Also included the 17- inch light- alloy wheels in a so-called CUP design standard. The 928 GTS was virtually unchanged offered in this form and features to the end of production in 1995. He tasted last in the basic price more than 178,000 DM
With the end of the 928, Porsche adopted for several years by the concept of classic Gran Turismo. Only with the production of the Porsche Panamera Porsche again offers a sports car that can be counted to do so.
In addition to the standard models, Porsche various special models or small series models ago.
50 years Porsche ( 1981)
End of 1981 put Porsche on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the company on a special series of 140 Porsche 928 S in the color Metallic Meteor. These specimens had a lavish interiors made of red leather and fabric, which was not available in production models. On the headrests of the lettering F. Porsche was embroidered.
There also were offered 600 Porsche 924 in color Zinnmetallic and 200 Porsche 911 SC in Metallic Meteor in this special equipment.
928 S4 Clubsport (1988 )
In 1988, a sporty version of the 928 S4 was released by Porsche. This car had the designation 928 S4 Clubsport and was lighter than the standard version to over 120 kg. Was achieved weight reduction by waiving the PVC underbody protection, with lighter wheels and the elimination of various comfort elements. The powerplant of the engine of the S4 with a power of 235 kW was (320 hp ) installed with slight modifications. The engine was. , By using sharper camshafts and other control devices for injection and ignition of very sporty character The Clubsport was delivered only with the five-speed manual transmission. The vehicle thus represented particularly the ideas of the then CEO Heinz Branitzki of a sports car. He said: " Being a Porsche must be easy and fast, and convey a lot of fun ."
This statement was supported by measurements of the magazine Auto, Motor und Sport, the year before was able to test a pre-production model. " The relief to 125 kg shows at the performance unmistakable effect ," was the verdict. In the test, the vehicle accelerated, according to measurements of the magazine in 5.7 seconds from zero to 100 km / h and reached a maximum speed of 276 km / h
Four-seater (Porsche 942)
1984 Porsche was planning a longer version of the 928 and instructed the designer Anatole Lapine with the design of internally 928-4 said carriage. Lapine extended the body shell of a 928 S to 250 mm to 4.77 meters. To facilitate entry of the rear seats, the B- column was placed vertically. The weight of the car took these measures by 75 kg to 1625 kg. By extending the turning circle grew to 12.5 meters. In addition, Porsche increased the rear track by 25 mm to 1564 mm, while the front track width remained unchanged.
This Porsche 942 also called car, Ferry Porsche was presented on his 75th birthday on September 19, 1984. The vehicle had been the engine with 228 kW (310 hp). The front bumper already corresponded to the nose section of the 928 S4 from 1987. The body was painted in a dark green metallic. The very extensive interior included air conditioning, cruise control, an alarm system, a Blaupunkt stereo radio type Cologne, a window antenna and a telephone. However, the car remained a one-off. Because due to the lower body rigidity over the standard model Porsche decided not to build the prototype in series.
In May 1987, Porsche CEO Peter W. gave protection to the Convertible Specialists American Specialty Cars ( ASC) the contract for a feasibility study of a four-seater 928 Based on the experience with the single piece from 1984 was a model with combinational like tail and on ASC initiative nor a hatchback. Both vehicles were in contrast to the Ferry Porsche milestone vehicle additional rear doors opening in opposite directions. However, it did not come to mass production.
Today, these vehicles can be viewed as an ancestor of the Porsche Panamera was introduced in 2009.
The Hanover-based tuning company Artz developed in 1983 on the basis of a two-door 928 wagon with the name Porsche 928 S Break. The technology of the 928 remained unchanged; the body is provided with a horizontally extending top, a stationary steep C-pillar and wide rear side windows. After presentation of the business owner Gunter Artz the body of the cluster is more aerodynamic than the coupe; it resultiere a higher top speed, which was given as 261 km / h. The conversion costs amounted to DM 30,000
Numerous workshops offered during the course of the 1980s Cabriolet versions of the 928 to, among them the tuning company B & B Auto Service Exclusiv by Rainer Buchmann from Frankfurt am Main. It was here that versions with fabric top and Targa versions.
The Porsche 928 was produced from 1977 to 1995 in the following versions for the German market:
Apart from the production model of the 928 S4 also a special model, the Porsche 928 S4 Clubsport ( CS), with revised engine ( 235 kW/320 hp also officially ) and reduced weight was offered in 1988.
Graphical representation of the 928 development
Source: Werner Oswald, German cars from 1945 to 1990. Engine book publishing house, Stuttgart 2001.
Prices on the used car market
The Porsche 928 has become a high-priced classics. The prices of vehicles in pristine condition have increased from 2005 to 2010 on the German market by more than 50 %. While one of the first series Porsche 928 2005 or 14,000 euros, so it was in 2010 already 22.500 euros. Other sources note (well, unrestored ) for an early 928 in the " 2 " at a price of 19,000 euros.
In motorsports, the Porsche 928 was hardly used. The few racing activities were limited, for example, on some races in the World Sportscar Championship in Group B in the years 1983 and 1984 by private teams. It was the 928 used in both years at the 24 - hour race at Le Mans, where he went in 1984 to 22nd position. The cars used were based on the 928 S and were equipped for racing applications with a modified engine and an additional oil cooler. The brake system was efficient and corresponded to that of the Porsche 917 Inside a roll cage made of aluminum was installed.
In 1984, Porsche introduced his former Porsche works drivers Jacky Ickx, Jochen Mass, Stefan Bellof and Derek Bell each have a 928 S with 228 kW (310 hp). With this car these lead to their deployment in the long distance races. The vehicles had a special paintwork in grand prix white with a Rothmans - colored stripes on the model of Porsche 956 C racing cars.
In the Porsche scene was and is the 928 not without controversy. Fans of the brand often prefer the 911 and do not see the 928 as a real Porsche. Referring to Ernst Fuhrmann, under whose leadership the 928 was developed, the car therefore sometimes disrespectfully as Fuhrmann 928 in the Porsche scene is called.