Porsche 944 S
Porsche 944 is an automobile series of Porsche AG, which was introduced in 1981 and externally based on the Porsche 924 Carrera GT. It is a further development of the series 924, it replaced later. In terms of price and performance vehicles between the Porsche 924 and Porsche 911 were settled. The Porsche 944 was built until 1991 and then replaced by the 968 series. He was one of the most successful sports car.
The engine range of 944 ranges from 110 kW ( 150 hp) to 184 kW (250 hp) for the top model 944 Turbo. As a technical feature of the 944 engine, the transmission, however, sits like the 924 the front of the vehicle to the driven rear axle (known transaxle design ).
- 2.3.1 prehistory
- 2.3.2 Body and chassis
- 2.3.3 adjustments during the construction period
- 3.1 Porsche 944 Turbo S
- Porsche 944 3.2 Celebration Edition (Special Edition)
- 4.1 Porsche 944 GTR
- 4.2 Porsche 944 Turbo Cup
- 8.1 Books
- 8.2 Magazines
The Porsche 924 was originally developed by Porsche as the successor of the VW - Porsche 914 for Volkswagen. Therefore, and especially because of the engine block used in the Audi 100 and the commercial vehicle VW LT saw many Porsche customers the car rather than right at Porsche. It was therefore decided to develop on the basis of the body of the 924 Carrera GT a sports car with a "real " Porsche engine. , The Porsche 924 and 944 were prepared as contract manufacturing of Audi in Neckarsulm. The new car, called the Porsche 944 was released in late 1981 from the beginning and got very good reviews from the trade press. During the first year already received more than 30,000 orders a.
The Porsche 944 appeared in the versions 944, 944S, 944S2, 944 Turbo and - in limited quantities - as a top model 944 Turbo S. They differed in engine performance, equipment and price. All models features and combines the Transaxlesystem that there had not been in front of the Porsche 924: The engine sits with its focus slightly behind the front axle, while the transmission is in a unit with the final drive at the rear of the vehicle. Engine and transmission are connected by a current in a steel pipe shaft. This provides, along with the large fuel tank for a very balanced weight distribution of 48:52 (front: rear ) and therefore to a neutral driving behavior and very good traction.
The basic model of the 944 was built from 1981 to 1989. In the introduction it cost with manual transmission 38,900 Deutsche Mark, with automatic transmission 40,400 Deutsche Mark, in the last year of production 61,900 Deutsche Mark, with automatic transmission 64,500 D-Mark.
Engine and transmission
The original base model is equipped with a 2479 cc four-cylinder, developed from the right bank of cylinders of the V8 engine of the Porsche 928, equipped. The 944 engine has in the version without catalyst a higher specific power output of 120 kW (163 hp) than the early 928, the 4.5- liter engine 176 kW (240 hp) and later from 5.4 liters up to 257 kW (350 PS ) carried out.
Thanks to a high compression ratio of 10.6: 1, the engine has a high thermodynamic efficiency. It reaches its highest torque of 205 Nm at a speed of 3000 rpm. The maximum output of 120 kW ( 163 PS) is delivered at 5800 rpm, electronically limited maximum speed is 6500 rpm. The consumption of the vehicle is at 90 km / h 7.0 liters per 100 km, with 120 km / h 8.7 litres/100 km in the urban cycle and 11.4 liters. The engine block 944 is made of a hypereutectic aluminum- silicon alloy. The forged crankshaft is supported five times. The light-alloy pistons are iron-plated and connected by sinter-forged steel connecting rods to the crankshaft. The light alloy cylinder head is built according to the cross-flow principle (8 -valve and 16 -valve ) and has bucket tappets with hydraulic valve clearance compensation. The problem of imperfect mass balance of the four-cylinder engine was encountered in 944 with the installation of two balance shafts. Many details of the 944 engine are standard in engine, but were new in 1981.
As standard a manually -shifting five-speed gearbox was fitted to the needs of the 944 8.4 seconds from 0 to 100 km / hr. For an additional charge a three-speed automatic transmission was offered, with whom he needs 9.6 seconds to accelerate to 100 km / hr.
The few body changes at 944 was found already partly in the Porsche 924 Carrera GT and GTS, in which the front fenders were widened, but the rear fender flares were still placed in plastic. In 944 they were harmoniously integrated into the body. The body is plated, to achieve a long corrosion resistance. The pop-up headlights were like the 924 still available. Through the large glass dome and the folding rear seats has the 944 as the 924 and the 928 a remarkable for a sports car trunk.
When designing the interior of value was placed on ensuring that the driver and passenger get good seating comfort. The rear row of seats was, porsche typical, suitable only for children or extra luggage. Even if it does not correspond to the normal use of a Porsche, a roof rack system with a maximum load capacity of 75 kg has been developed. In addition, the sports car can draw a maximum trailer load of 1200 kg. The standard alloy wheels 7Jx15 with tires 185/70 VR 15 were also used in the 911 SC, as well as the optional aluminum impellers 7Jx16 (also known as Fuchs wheels ) with tires 205/55 VR 16 As with all Porsche sports cars, there were also the 944 a seven-year warranty on Durchrostungsschäden.
Adjustments during the construction period
One reason for the success of the basic model was the constant adjustment during construction. An important was the introduction of catalytic converters in 1985. This was optionally available from 1985 on. Models without catalyst were serially pre-equipped to allow the later addition of a catalyst. However, the catalyst limited the engine power to 150 hp, which is why the majority of Porsche buyers continue to chose the version without a catalyst. In addition, the cockpit and the seats of the 944 Turbos were standard used in the basic model. Because of these adjustments, the models built from 1985 are also referred to as 944/II that built before 1985 models according to 944 / I. The performance of the model catalyst was only in 1987 increased because in this Year of both engine variants contributed 118 kW (160 hp). 1988, the engine of the 944 was heavily revised, he made from now on 165 hp, the engine capacity was increased from 2.5 to 2.7 liters. The maximum torque was 210 Nm at 4500 rpm before that, from 1988, was 225 Nm at 4200 rpm. Furthermore, there was a new engine electronics, a higher compression ratio, larger inlet valves and a new camshaft with revised valve timing. Also, optionally, a radio with CD player was offered.
In August 1986, the 944 followed by the 944 S, who had four valves per cylinder with the same capacity of 2.5 liters now an output of 140 kW (190 hp). The 944 S was superseded in 1988 by the 944 S2, which reached a maximum power of 155 kW ( 211 hp) at 5800 rpm with a larger capacity of 3 liters and four-valve technology. He was at that time the largest -displacement four-cylinder engine in a production car.
As top version, there was the 944 Turbo (Type 951), a 2.5 liter engine was boosted by a KKK turbocharger and the 162 kW (220 PS ) carried out. From 1987, a speedometer with a speed display up to 300 km / h was installed. The official top speed of 245 km / h However, also maximum speeds of up 255 km / h were determined in test reports.
The history of the Porsche 944 Turbo began in the summer of 1981, when Porsche at the 24 Hours of Le Mans ( France) began a prototype of the 944 Turbo. The vehicle, which was driven by Walter Röhrl and Jürgen Barth, under the code name Porsche 924 GTP achieved seventh place overall. It won the prize for the shortest boxing stays. The prototype of the 944 Turbo made it because of its exceptional reliability to overtake many more vehicles, as they needed more time for repairs in the pit lane.
Encouraged by this success, Porsche three years later at the 24 - hour race at Nelson Ledges in Ohio (USA) again a prototype of the Porsche 944 Turbo one. To participate in this organized on a challenging road course racing only production car series and prototypes were approved, corresponding to the rules of the American road approval. For this reason, Porsche had to equip the 944 Turbo, among other things with a catalytic converter. Nevertheless reached the vehicle, by John Busby, Rick Knoop and Freddy Buker ( All Americans) was piloted with 40 laps to win in this race.
Because of these successes in motorsport, Porsche decided to bring the prototype of the Porsche 944 Turbo on the market. The project was referred to internally as the Porsche 951. Was introduced the Porsche 944 Turbo, the 928 S was ranked in terms of price and performance between the Porsche 944 and Porsche, in 1985 for a base price of 72,000 D-Mark. The first vehicles were delivered to customers in 1986.
Body and chassis
The body of the Porsche 944 Turbo emphasizes the descent from the Porsche 924, however, it has been revised and improved in many ways. New are the bow with integrated light units, the windshield flush used, the side rocker moldings and a rear apron included in the overall shape, which also acts as a diffuser.
This enabled the drag coefficient (Cd ) decreased from 0.35 to 0.33. Also, were obtained by modified front and rear spoiler and the new rear bumper lower lift coefficients than the conventional 944.
If the 944 Turbo in 1987 still with tires 205/55 VR 16 (front) and 225/50 VR 16 (rear) delivered from the factory, had later when replacing these tires by the high-order tires 205/55 ZR 16 (front) and 225/50 ZR 16 (rear) to be replaced.
Adjustments during the construction period
In 1989, the normal 944 Turbo 944 Turbo many components of the S. So also an increase in output to 184 kW was achieved (250 PS) by installing a larger turbocharger. Due to this increase in performance, the normal Turbo received a speed display up to 300 km / h is also a free-standing rear wing was installed, which provides at high speeds aerodynamic advantages.
Porsche 944 Turbo S
1988 Porsche built a limited edition of 1,635 models special edition of the 944 Turbo, the Porsche 944 Turbo S. The engine is a direct derivative of the 944 Turbo Cup engine and standard equipped with a catalytic converter. The suggested retail price was 99,800 D-Mark.
The most important modification compared to the 944 Turbo is the larger turbocharger, with the 184 kW (250 hp ) or with plant capacity increase to 221 kW ( 300 hp) to 162 kW ( 220 hp ) was increased in the normal turbo performance. The special edition has further standard with the so-called M030 package that includes a height-adjustable Koni coilovers among others. In addition, a limited slip differential and anti-lock brakes, one from the Porsche 928 S4 brake system removed and a reinforced gearbox with external oil cooler is installed. The official top speed of the special model was 260 km / h
The special model was initially only available in Porsche special color Silberrosé Metallic.
Porsche 944 Celebration Edition (Special Edition)
1988, a special edition of the 944 was launched on the occasion of the 100,000 Porsche from Neckarsulm. The special model, M757, was produced in a limited edition of 910 pieces. 403 were in Satin Black, 507 vehicles were delivered in Zermattsilbermetalic. The special models had a black art leather interior with the attractive " studio" - fabric inserts in gray / gray and silver-gray carpets. Likewise, the door panels were covered with this material. Other features included split rear seat backrests, automatic heating, removable electric sunroof, side protection in body color and fog lights. The wheels were of the type " Telefonwählscheiben " in size 7J front and 8J rear fitted with tires in size 205/55 VR 16 and 225/50 VR 16 had each vehicle in the glove compartment, a coin with approximately 6.5 cm diameter, marked " Special Edition 1987 " or "1988 " for the U.S. models.
In motorsport, the models in the series 944 were successful. Porsche seized the motor sport use mainly to test new modifications of the models before use in the production cars in motor sport.
Porsche 944 GTR
→ Main article: Porsche 944 GTR
Porsche 944 Turbo Cup
→ Main article: Porsche 944 Turbo Cup
With the successful introduction of the 944 Turbo, the idea of a one-make cup for the 944 This was introduced in 1986 and held until 1990. For use came specifically for this brand trophy modified 944 Turbo with a maximum output of 162 kW (220 hp). The maximum torque was 330 Nm at 3500 rpm. Changes compared to the standard 944 Turbo were modified suspension components, larger tires and a roll cage. Exhaust catalyst remained together in series model. In the French version of the 944 Turbo Cup, which was held in 1987, but lacked the catalyst due to the poor supply of unleaded gasoline. Important parts but as the engine control unit were sealed and so could not be modified. From 1987, the vehicles were equipped with an antilock brake system.
The Targa version was distinguished by a roof part, which could be placed behind or removed and stowed in the trunk. However, it was more like a big " sunroof " and can not be compared with the actual 911 Targa roof.
The tuner Strosek Design offered conversions which gave the vehicle a racing- like appearance. It was a body kit, which gave the vehicle mainly by replacing the tailgate and extensions of the body a very sporty appearance.
Worth mentioning is also the Porsche 944 Convertible. Convertible and Coupé are technically identical, but the bodyshell at ASC ( Karosseriewerke vineyard ) in the vineyard has been edited. There, the roof of the body has not only been removed, but amplified by a second welded floor. In addition to the approximately 60 mm shorter windshield frame and the glass dome over the trunk by a rear cover made of sheet steel was replaced, what makes the biggest difference to the coupe next to the fabric roof.
The 944 S2 Cabriolet was only built in 1989-1991 to a total of 6980 copies, only 528 pieces created a special limited series of 944 Turbo Cabriolet. The roof was mechanically opened an additional cost but also an electric soft top was available, part of the series from 1990. The one year only built turbo variant had an additional standard air conditioning and at the time was the fastest four-cylinder convertible in the world. Today, the 944 Convertible is already a wanted neo-classicists.
From model year 1991, there were this last stage of the 944 even with an airbag and the same fixed rear spoiler of the 944 Turbo.
The 944 S2 has evolved the Porsche 968 and equipped with a variable, Variocam said valve control geometry.
The engine of the 968 was up to 450 hp afford ( 968 Turbo RS, which were built only 4 in total ). The 968 Turbo S had to be content, however, with 305 horsepower and the "normal" 968 with 239 hp.
The new body design has optical characteristics of the 964 and 928. The Porsche 968 was the last stage of evolution of the Transaxlemodelle.
The Porsche 944 was produced from 1981 to 1991 in the following versions: