Armant (Arabic أرمنت Armant, also Arment or Erment; ancient Egyptian " Iunu - Monthu " ( On ( Heliopolis ) of the Month ) or Southern Heliopolis ( Jwnj šm'j ), Greco- Latin Hermonthis, Coptic: ⲉ ⲣ ⲙ ⲉ ⲛ ⲧ ) is a city in upper Egypt on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor governorate. It is located about 20 km south of Thebes - West, opposite the city at- death. The place was up to the 18th dynasty, and in Roman times the capital of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome.
In the near Armant spacious Predynastic necropolis and settlements have been excavated. Some find traces indicate a continuous settlement from the earliest times to the First Intermediate Period.
In the 11th Dynasty Armant plays an important role in the re- unification. From this period the temple of the Month comes from. This divine names contributed several nomarchs or kings of the 11th dynasty (eg Mentuhotep II ) in their name. The expansion of the temple to a large temple was under Thutmose III. During the reign of Akhenaten, the name of Amun was destroyed in many places. Ramses II endowed the temple with two colossi. His son Merneptah was associated with some Osiris statues. Among the Persians, the temple was destroyed and replaced at the end of the late period under Nectanebo II or in Greco- Roman times by a new building. In the 19th century the temple was demolished but largely for the purpose of construction of sugar factories and private homes.
Besides Month here also his companion Tjenenet was worshiped, in their place later similar to the Month - temple in al - Madamud the goddess Rat- taui ( " Council of the two countries "), a female sun goddess, and their son Hor -pa - re- pa - chered ( " Horus -Re, the child " ) occurred. On the wall of Mammisi of Armant that Cleopatra VII was at the same time build the made the capital of the appointment of the place from the fourth nome of Upper Egypt, seven child deities are depicted: Harpocrates, Hor -pa - re -pa - chered, Horus schools pa - chered, SEMATAUI -pa - chered, Ihi, Heka -pa - chered and Hor - Hekenu -pa - chered.
Northwest of the temple a large necropolis for sacred Buchis Bulls ( Bucheum ) and their mother cows was created. Greeks and Romans, continuing an anciently resident cult. East of the temple was a Roman village with a large walk-in wells. Armant is also an important Coptic center. The place was a bishopric. The former basilica of Armant is no longer maintained.