The Juche ideology (of Korean Juche: autonomy ',' self-sufficiency '; pronunciation in IPA: [ ʨu.ʨ ʰ e], ie Dschutsche ), usually written Juche idea is a political ideology that by the late President of North Korea (Democratic people's Republic of Korea, DPRK) Kim Il-sung was developed.
The Juche ideology is understood by its adherents as a further development of Marxism- Leninism, but contradicts this essential. Core ideology is that the interests of their own nation with those of the international communist movement are and that a " labor leaders " must transform society. In addition, a special role in Korea is believed that the Soul of the World. In this view, classical Marxism -Leninism, the Juche ideology, however, is caught in its " historical borders ", forever.
According to this ideology, every nation must promote the social revolution on its own. The three principles of the Juche ideology are:
The state therefore has the task of ensuring political, economic and military independence. With these principles North Korea founded the insulation to the outside world.
People are loud Juche ideology in the position of a designer and ruler of the world. However, the individual man must submit to the masses, as he could only unfold in the group. The masses of the people turn to be led by the party and the leader. In the Juche ideology of man is indeed a subject, but is required of him unconditional loyalty.
As a further contrast to classical Marxism -Leninism emphasize Chuch'e trailer the involvement of intellectuals. So shows the emblem of the Workers' Party of Korea brush, hammer and sickle: The hammer is for the working class, the sickle for the peasantry and the brush for the intellectuals. This concept, however, is to be found not only in the Juche ideology; other communist tendencies contact the intellectuals, which is reflected in the symbols of political parties and movements, such as the circle in the arms of the GDR.
Importance in North Korea
Juche replaced Marxism-Leninism in 1977 as a belief in the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and also after the death of Kim Il-sung in 1994 meaning. Under his son Kim Jong- il, the Juche ideology but was supplanted by the increasingly Sŏn'gun Policy ( North Korean militarism ), known since 2009 in the North Korean constitution in the first place.
1997, three years after Kim Il-sung's death, the Juche calendar was introduced in North Korea officially. It differs from the Gregorian calendar by the year count that starts with the year of birth Kims. So ever since then, the year 1912 as the Juche (also: Juche ) 1
One of the national symbols of North Korea, the begonia Kimjongilia, stands for the ideals of Juche ideology. As a monument to the ideology of the monument of the Juche ideology in the North Korean capital, Pyongyang was completed in 1982.
In the 1970s and 1980s succeeded in North Korea to win international trailer for the Juche ideology. Especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America emerged " Juche ideology study groups." They were generously supported with study materials. Trailers, read the works of Kim Il-sung and other representatives of the Juche ideology, were often shown in the North Korean media. These groups also felt attracted by the idea of an independent by the then Great Powers Soviet Union and United States national development. Even government officials a few African countries were followers of the Juche ideology. So was the "International Scientific Seminar of the Juche ideology ", which took place from 28 to 30 September 1976 in Antananarivo, Madagascar, inaugurated by the then President Didier Ratsiraka. Other heads of state spoke in the 1980s when state visits to North Korea positive about the Juche ideology.
On April 9, 1978, the " International Institute of the Juche Idea " ( IIJI ) was founded in Tokyo. The aim was loud founding statement " the spread of the classic works of the revered and beloved president Kim Il-sung, the organization of seminars and lectures, and the publication of writings, the coordination of cooperation of the Juche study groups and the opening of libraries for the Study of Juche ideology and book exhibitions to disseminate the Juche ideology. " First Director General of the Institute was the Japanese Yasui Kaori. From 1985 to 1989, the IIJI was led by the former Austrian Federal Minister of Justice Hans Klecatsky. Current General shall be the Indian Vishwanath. Organ of IIJI is the magazine " Study of the Juche Idea ".
On 12 and 13 April 2012 was the occasion of the 100th birthday of Kim Il-sung in Pyongyang a " World Conference on Juche ideology " instead.
Today, the Juche ideology has little influence outside of North Korea. There are some countries but still Juche study groups, particularly in Latin America and Africa, but also in Europe. In Germany among these groups of " Friends of the Juche Idea " in the KPD - East and the "Korean Friendship Association - Germany", which maintains close ties to the " Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries " in Pyongyang.
As part of its cross- front strategy also oriented the 2008 resolution neo-Nazi " German Socialist Combat League " at the Juche ideology. Moreover, there was from 1996 to 1998, the Workers 'Party of Germany ( PDAD ), which was based on the Workers' Party of Korea. The PDAD briefly had contact with the NPD, where the ideology was received as part of the propagated anti-Americanism.
In France, the Parti Juche de France ( PJF ) refers to the Juche ideology.
Primary literature (North Korea)
- Kim Jong- il, using the Dschutsche ideology, Pyongyang: Publisher Foreign Language Press, 1982
- Kim Jong- il, On the Juche philosophy, Pyongyang: Publisher Foreign Language Press, 2002
- Kim Il-sung, On the elimination of dogmatism and formalism as well as the production of the Juche in the ideological work, Pyongyang: Publisher Foreign Language Press, 1971, Juche library
- Kim Il-sung, On Juche in our Revolution, Volume 1 - 3, Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1975 to 1982
- Kim Il-sung, Juche On the Idea, Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1979
- The International Seminar on the Juche Idea, Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1977
- Belke, J.Thomas: Juche: A Christian Study of North Korea 's State Religion, Bartlesville: Living Sacrifice Book Company, 1999, ISBN 0882643290
- Mackerras, Colin: The, Juche idea and the thought of Kim Il Sung, in Colin Mackerras, Nick Knight, Marxism in Asia, London: Croom Helm, 1985
- Rinser, Luise, North Korean diary, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1986, ISBN 3-596-24233-9
- Pfabigan, Alfred: Sleepless in Pyongyang. From the failed attempt to make a skeptical Europeans to a member of the Big Red Family, Wien: Christian Brandstätter Verlag, 1986, ISBN 3854472048