The Losse is a 28.9 kilometers long, orographic right-hand or eastern tributary of the Fulda in the Werra- Meißner-Kreis, in the district of Kassel, in the independent city of Kassel, North Hesse ( Germany ).
The Losse rises in the Werra- Meißner-Kreis above the core city of hessian Lichtenau. Your source is located directly on the east of the city located Walberg ( 429.3 m above sea level. NN ), a gently sloping treeless survey on the former training area of the former Blücher Barracks. About 550 m southwest of the highest point she is on the edge of a grove of about 402 m above sea level. NN.
Initially, the Losse flows northwestward into the core city of hessian Lichtenau through which it runs only West and then north-west along the main road and the railway line 7 Kassel Forest Kappel ( Losse Valley Railway ). Shortly thereafter, she northwestward flowing through the Hessian light Auer village Fürstenhagen.
Then the Losse between the Söhre flows to the left side and the Kaufunger forest on the right side shores in a northwesterly direction in the district of Kassel, in the east they Helsaer the village Eschenstruth happened, where the men water discharges. There it passes under the B 7 and the Losse valley railway to a little further north, according to open out the re- perform from the east of Esch abseitigen Struthers Allotment Waldhof next trench, under the railway route.
Then reached the Losse, continue north along the B 7 and Loose Valley Railway running and the railway line to the intersection of Hergesbachs again Crossing it, the Helsaer nucleus, where discharges from the east of the creek Wedemann and, at the exit from the northeast zoom fluent in the Ibach. After the confluence Ibach it passes under the railway line again and flows north- westward to Oberkaufungen where it is bridged again by the railway line. After that it runs westward to Niederkaufungen where the creek flows to Set. After that, the flowing water seeks the northwest to flow past after twice passing under the B 7 and intervening open out of Diebachsgrabens north on Kaufungener district paper mill.
When passing under the motorway 7 (200 m long bridge ) is the Losse on a few meters flow path, the natural border of Kaufungen to the independent city of Kassel. In this city it flows through the district Bettenhausen, where she initially passes through the northern Eichwald and gradually away from the B 7 and Loose Valley Railway. Later she forms the border of Bettenhausen to Unterneustadt quarter.
Finally, the Losse opens at the city limits of Sandershausen (municipality part of Niestetal ) under the artificially created Losse deltas ( see paragraph History - 21st century) to about 135 m above sea level. Sea level in the western Weser- source river Fulda; the opposite mouth is - beyond the Fulda - the district of Kassel, Wolfsanger.
Middle Ages to World War II
In the Middle Ages the water power of the fast-flowing Losse was used to power numerous mills. In the course of time, 34 mills settled, alone in Bettenhausen at the mill canal Losse there were 12 mills were the only part of grinding mills, many of them were also or exclusively industrial mills that served the driving machinery. Many street names in the Kassel districts Bettenhausen and forestry field still remind us of these mills. The mills include:
- The Agathof, first mentioned in 1377 under the name of laughter mill, with varying functions as a grist mill, gemstone (the name derives probably from Agat agate ab) and later chemical factory;
- The iron hammer, built partly in 1685, first paper mill, sawmill and then later the factory floor Rocholl;
- 1410 first mentioned the Herwig mill ( mill wire, Low Messinghof ), which mainly served as a grist mill and at the temporarily the wire drawing of Messinghofs was housed;
- The copper hammer, founded in 1680 and located above the Messinghofs ( Supreme wire mill), here's a part of the copper processing the Messingshofs took place;
- The 1407 first mentioned Forstmühle, later Messinghof and since the mid -16th century brass movement.
World War II until the end of the 20th century
After the Second World War, the Losse was straightened to preserve adjacent arable and pasture land against flooding and erosion of the shore. This results in increased velocity of the water. Flood addressed especially in flat structured underflow and thus in the Kassel districts repeatedly damage ( it ran as cellar full).
Beginning of the 21st century were almost carried out extensive restoration work on the entire course of Losse, based on a concept started in 1998 at the University of Kassel and are designed to improve the ecological situation and flood protection; the measures take part continue to.
Between the aforementioned crossing under the A 7 and the confluence of the Losse in the Fulda - and thus in Kassel - 2004 ( August 30 to December 21 ) were in among others the partly channel-like, framed in concrete walls during the Losse natural in a converted river bed and built retreat zones for animals and plants.
It was also the end of August 2005 to February 2006 the previously straightened channel-like mouth area of the Losse - east of Kassel port located - prior by including arable and meadow areas expanded to the newly created estuary Losse Delta. These nutrient-rich arable soil were brought to approximately 60,000 m². The ensuing depression with about 63,000 m³ capacity is in addition to their delta function as flood control space. Of about 400 m long mouth area of river bends, branchings and islands and small standing water bodies will henceforth determined. At the same time trees and shrubs were planted. In the delta, amphibians, fish, insects and birds such as the development of the landscape are left to themselves. The procedures in this artificially created nature reserve can range from a specially heaped panoramic hill together with the information panels below the " depot cleaner city " near the leading of the Losse foot and cycle bridge is to be observed.
The origin of the name Losse is controversial, but there is a nice story that is handed down today: Because the river until now was nameless, all the mayors of the adjacent places came together long ago in order to nominate a name for the river. However, it failed to agree, despite a long consultation period. One of the Advisor to the waiting time have proclaimed tired, " Losse doh glad, as se wills" ( High German: " Let them say how they want" ) - and so is the Losse have come to their name.
Catchment and inflows
Among the tributaries of the Losse, whose catchment area is 120.576 km ² belong to - if known - orographic mapping (l = left side, R = right side), river length, Mündungsort with Losse kilometers of river and catchment size ( downriver considered ) /:
- Steinbach in hessian Lichtenau (r; 2.5 km ) below hessian Lichtenau (near km 25), 6.118 km ²
- Saubach ( l; 2.8 km ) directly above Fürstenhagen (near km 23.8 )
- Börnchenbach ( l; 2.8 km ), in Fürstenhagen (near km 23.5 ), 5.968 km ²
- Men's water ( l, 3.8 km) and at Eschenstruth (near km 20.8 ), 5.974 km ²
- Hergesbach (r; 4.3 kilometers ) above Helsa (near km 17.2 ), 6.486 km ²
- Wedemann (r; 5.1 km ), in Helsa (near 15.75 km ), 14.507 km ² Lautenbach (r, 2.4 km), Helsa (near Wedemann - km 1.05)
Among the villages on or near the Losse include - downriver considered:
- Hessian Lichtenau Fürstenhagen
- Kaufungen with: Oberkaufungen
- Paper mill
- Kassel Bettenhausen
By Lossetal runs between Kaufunger forest and Söhre of hessian Lichtenau about Helsa and Kaufungen to Kassel, a portion of B 7, the Federal Highway 7 (200 m long bridge ) crosses on the border of Kaufungen and Kassel. From the A 7 branches in the future of the part still in the planning approval, partly under construction or in part in sections completed and to the southeast leading part of the federal highway 44 off to the river valley - running partly on the mountain flanks or in tunnels - past Kaufungen and helsa to lead to Hessisch Lichtenau. Through the valley, even such the railway Kassel Forest Kappel leads (also Losse valley railway or Kassel Forest Kappeler railroad called ), the aforementioned villages with each other along the Losse.