Metaphysics ( original title τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά - ta meta ta physical - " The past, in addition to the physics " ) is a collection of texts of Aristotle to ontology. The term itself is not from Aristotle, but possibly goes back to Andronicus of Rhodes, as this namely BC auffand in the 1st century, the works of Aristotle in a basement of Strabo, where they camped about 200 years, and Andronicus strove to an order of the scriptures; it was a compilation, which is basically a kind of stopgap for a group of treatises, which remained in the reorganization of the scriptures and were classified poor; Andronikos they added a behind which about physics, so that the name initially had a spatial library importance. The work is summarized from several sections and has been a branch of philosophy, metaphysics, his name. Aristotle defined the subject as follows:
While the individual sciences deal with objects you ever own, it is for the basic science, to ask about the first principles and causes and to provide clarifications for this purpose.
- 4.1 substance as a subject
- 4.2 Principles of thought
- 5.1 The Underlying
- 5.2 The "what - it -was- to-Be "
- 5.3 The General and the genus
- 8.1 expenditure
- 8.2 encyclopedias
- 8.3 secondary literature
Origin and meaning of the title of the work
Under the collective name metaphysics have summarized in 14 books Aristotle's pupil, probably the Peripatetic Andronicus of Rhodes in the 1st century BC, different, partly independent writings. The title, according to a widespread but outdated theory, therefore simply denote the position in this edition: The books are arranged downstream of physics. Aristotle himself called the object of his science " first philosophy " ( πρώτη φιλοσοφία - prote philosophia ) or " theological science" ( episteme ἐπιστήμη theologikē ). Recent research of the opinion that the name was possibly used substance is already in the early Peripatetic before Andronikos because the object refers to what is behind the things on the first ground of. This view was already prepared by Alexander of Aphrodisias, an early commentator on Aristotle.
Overview of the Content
The results summarized in metaphysics texts sometimes have a very different character and are only marginally linked. However, their summary is useful to form a complete work because they. , All with a common theme, the study of being as being, have in a first philosophy the subject The various educational texts of Aristotle, who have no title itself, are made over a long period of time and deal with the uniform issue from different angles.
The first six books have an introductory character and serve as an introduction to the subject, in the
- The question is viewed from a historical perspective philosophy (Book I and II),
- Are generally raised issues to be addressed (Book III)
- Epistemological considerations are discussed (Book IV),
- The basic terms are determined content (Book V),
- Made a distinction from other sciences (Book VI).
The Books VII to IX are the first main part. They are usually referred to as a substance books. In these Aristotle examines the substance as being and explanatory ground of all being. After introduced only in modern times by Christian Wolff structuring of metaphysics, ontology of Aristotle is treated as a general metaphysics in these texts. The distinction of matter and form a substance plays an important role. Furthermore, it is subjected to the relationship between reality and possibility ( act and potency ) of a substance separate consideration.
The X. book on the " A " can be seen as deepening and complementing the ontology. In contrast, the XI. Book in the outline a foreign body, the already and partly also includes more succinctly Abgehandeltes only the following. It is therefore as a kind of short script of the entire subject, possibly written by a student as a transcript, has been construed.
The second major piece is the main XII. Book. Here Aristotle examined the being, especially in regard to its origin and less on its modes of being. The result is a cosmology and natural theology, in the division of Christian Wolff therefore a special metaphysics in which God is the unmoved mover of the ground of all being. The third theme of the special metaphysics according to Wolff, the soul, is to be found in Aristotle not in the writings of the Metaphysics, but in the separate work De anima.
The last two books XIII and XIV can be regarded again as a depression of the overall theme, in the abstract entities, ie ideas and especially the mathematics are considered ontologically, with Aristotle there also repeated his criticism of Plato and the Pythagoreans.
The program of metaphysics
The rationale of the program of the first philosophy is found in the first two sections of the first book of the Metaphysics, which is written as an introduction to a larger work. First, Aristotle stated:
The first draws insights from perception of the man, the vision plays a prominent role. In addition, the man from the perspective of Aristotle, unlike other living creature has the ability to learn from experience and this even develop into an art. Craftsman working from experience and habit. Art is created by overlaying if you can specify the causes whereby something is produced. Science is the application of art to questions that are not directed to the necessary needs. In the words of Aristotle, that the great progress of the Egyptians were due in mathematics at leisure. Wisdom is "knowledge of certain principles and causes. " (I 1, 982 a 2 - 3 )
Science deals with the general principle, without any special knowledge of each individual. Particularly exactly are the sciences that relate to principles such as the geometry and more arithmetic. The highest science, however, " is that which recognizes the purpose why each is to be done; but this is the best for each individual and in the whole the best in the whole of nature " (I 2, 982 b 6-10 ).
The history of philosophy shows, according to Aristotle, that this supreme science is a theoretical science.
Subject of this science is the to the highest degree knowable and this is the Divine,
However, even if this is the first science, so is the path of knowledge vice versa. It ranges from the practical about the art and the math to first principles. The General is the reason of the individual. However, it is recognized by a gradually increasing abstraction from the experience. The highest universal is thus the most remote of the perceived.
The initial causes of each beings came four aspects of Aristotle into consideration
- The nature and Suchness
- The substance and the substrate
- The cause of the start of the movement
- Which is why the good and the goal of all creation and movement.
In the investigation of these issues can be helpful, according to Aristotle, the study of the history of philosophy. He was therefore in the following an outline of the teachings of the pre-Socratics and a sketch of the philosophy of Plato. It follows on an in-depth criticism. The pre-Socratics he held before placing them in the choice of concrete empirical objects as primordial ground from observations in contradictions. Above all, they had neither asked about the nature and essence as the cause of all motion. On the idea of Plato, he criticized that the adoption of an independent existence of ideas leads to at least a doubling of things, "because for each individual there is something with the same name. " (I 9, 990 b 10-11 ) Aristotle called a number of other arguments against the notion that ideas could be the cause of being, among other things:
With the analysis and criticism of his predecessor Aristotle had drawn the frame and the claim that he wanted to fill in the first philosophy.
The second book of the Metaphysics is a brief motivation for the study of philosophy. These include, according to Aristotle,
Fundamental questions of first philosophy
After the historical approach to first philosophy Aristotle formulated fifteen fundamental issues which determine the content of the first systematic philosophy in the so-called Aporienbuch. In addition, Aristotle also discussed the issues associated with the philosophical difficulties in each case. The answers remain open at first. Nevertheless, these questions are no paradoxes in the strict sense, because in the following texts are Aristotle partially and without direct reference unambiguous answers to the problems raised. The questions are pure ( not literally):
- Belongs to the consideration of the genera of the cause of science or more?
- If the proof principles are treated as an object in the first philosophy?
- If the substance is the subject of a special science, or of several?
- Are the accidents a particular object?
- Are the ideas independently, they are included in the things, or exists only perceptible?
- Are genres elements and principles of beings or are they immanent constituents of a thing?
- Can you use A and a being for the determination of species differences?
- Is it possible to derive the concept of infinity from a custom?
- Are principles of nature to one? How can they be part of an individual being but at the same time?
- Are the principles for the perishable and the imperishable in the same way?
- Belonging to the A and the being of the essence of each thing or do they have a separate being?
- Are numbers, body areas or dots substances?
- Why is it necessary at all to speak of ideas?
- Do the elements of chance own existence?
- Are the principles in general or in the way of individual things?
Subject matter and principles of first philosophy (Book IV)
Substance as a subject
Even the Fourth book of the Metaphysics has introductory character. According to the general determination of the first philosophy as the science of being as being and what to expect the same, presented Aristotle that:
Aristotle examined here again the question of what content belong to the first philosophy and how it is distinguished from other sciences. Also talk about different ways the being lead up to the one, to the substance itself. The ontological foundations for this approach had already been described earlier in the writing category, where he distinguished between substance and accidents Aristotle. With substance that is meant, which to an object ( person or thing ) remains the same, even if this is changing. For substance also include those properties that make their essence. Part of substance Socrates, for example, to be a living being. Such essentials called Aristotle in the category font second substance, unlike the accidents accruing to the single individual, the first substance, more or less randomly ( contingent ). The fact that Socrates had a hooked nose or was white, are immutable characteristics of an individual. However, these are just a way to the essence of a human being per se. In addition, there are properties that come also the individual only as a possibility as sitting, is in Athens, is less than or beats or is beaten. In his Metaphysics, Aristotle was less interested in the accidents and their relation to substance, but for what constitutes the substance, which their identity is determined. According to the subject of the first science is the 2nd chapter of the fourth book again characterized:
Principles of thinking
The vast majority of the IV book deals with epistemological considerations. Phenomena are the subject of individual sciences. But insofar as the principles behind them, by those from the multiplicity of a unit is not created until the investigation is the responsibility of first philosophy. Already in Aristotle sounds to the question of naturalism, as discussed by Quine or Rorty in the 20th century, after which the basic issues were a matter for the specialist sciences themselves. Aristotle has formulated a clear negative answer to this:
Aristotle complaining in the third chapter is in the context of the investigation of being as being the study of the axioms of the special sciences, including the axioms of mathematics as a task of the first philosophy. The starting point is a principle that everyone recognizes is necessary that deals with knowledge according to Aristotle. He formulated the principle of contradiction: " For it is impossible for anyone to assume, is the same thing and was not. " (1005 b, 31) This principle is so fundamental to him that it precedes all other axioms. Aristotle objected to the requirement to prove such a principle. Such an attempt must lead to an infinite regress. As proof can apply at most, that anyone who makes a statement, this principle is already in use. (See 1006 a)
A second basic, derived from the first principle is: " Because you can not think of anything, when you think nothing one; " (1006 b, 15) Every word originally referred to one. If you use general terms to describe species as "man", so it is always possible to come to the level of the individual, designated by the single element with a name. To say that one type contains infinitely many elements, so there would be no meaningful speech. This finding explained Aristotle on the question of which property belongs to a thing. Such a question must be able to clearly answer.
Without that one assumes that there is a substance that can be predicated of something, there would be no relation and therefore no being, through which you can talk to. " Something described as being of a thing, stating that there had to be strange being in nothing else to say. " ( 1007 a 35-37 )
In the following chapters, Aristotle turned against the traditional ways of thinking that lead to a relativization of the basic principles. For example, against Protagoras and Anaxagoras, who allegedly taught that a thing belongs same time its opposite. Truth can not be tied to subjective standards for Aristotle. For him, the principle of bivalence for statements is true.
The principle of contradiction is only valid when it is predicated of the same thing at the same time. " Because the assets according to the same at the same time its opposite, the reality ( completion ) but not after. " ( 1009 a, 44-46 ) A road can not be both wet and dry. However, there is always the possibility that it is that one or the other. Aristotle addressed in this framework against a naive realism. He looked at Democritus, Empedocles, Parmenides and Anaxagoras. Their error lay in the fact that they sat sensory perception equally true.
Even against the school of Heraclitus and Cratylus against which all auffassten as elusive change in contrast to the foregoing, Aristotle taught with the argument that in every Become an entity has a certain stability ensure that the changes do not affect all properties. Something that arises, arises from something and to something. As additional justification Aristotle referred to the immutability of the universe. Against the simple view that sensory perception provides a true picture of the world, Aristotle referred to the difference of appearance and performance. (See 1010 b) Even anti-realist conceptions as that something ceases to be when it is no longer perceived, he rejected.
The result, according to Aristotle criticized Views from the false notion that one can prove the principles of human thought. " Such difficulties come to the question of whether we are asleep or awake now. " (1011 a, 8-9 ) Who makes such a question for which the answer is already evident. Those who call for the proof of the existence of the contrary, already assumed that the opposite exists.
At the end of Book IV (Chapters 7-8 ), Aristotle dealt yet with the law of excluded middle:
The often resulting error is that you look gray as intermediate between black and white. But the contrarian to white is not black, but non- white. Between odd and even at the figures there is no middle. The reason for this principle is that the truth of a statement is attached to the term and its meaning.
The doctrine of substance (Book VII to IX )
In the books, VII, VIII, IX ( Ζ, Η, Θ ) Aristotle developed his theory of substance that plays a central role in his work. This substance theory is more elaborate than his earlier doctrine resulting from the first and second substances in the categories font.
Basis of the theory of substance is the doctrine of hylemorphism, stating that things are composed of two components:
- Substance or matter ( hyle ) and
- Form ( morphe or eidos ).
To illustrate Aristotle calls the example of an image column: this is composed of the shape (eg, a God figure shown) and processed by the sculptor material (eg ore). The form gives the matter a provision, and both together make the statue as an object ( synholon ).
What is meant by substance? Substance is something that is his decisive as part of things, so a principle or a cause of the being of things. What this his governing principle may be content now, but different options can be considered. In Book VII, Chapter 3, Aristotle lists four possible candidates:
- The Underlying ( substratum, hypokeimenon )
- The "what - it -was- to-Be " (to ti einai ên )
- The General ( katholou )
- The genus ( genos ).
In Chapter 3, he discusses the Underlying, in Chapters 4 to 6, the "what- it -was- to-Be " and Chapters 13 to 16, the General including the genus in terms of their suitability as a substance in the above sense.
Given the composition of the things of matter and form, the matter comes as Underlying considered, since the shape can be predicated of the matter or plays in the form of matter. However, we abstract from material things all the properties, then only something completely seamless provision remains. Such indefinite matter no longer meets the criterion of self-employment, independence from others ( choriston ) what needs to be provided for Underlying however. Therefore, matter alone can not be the substance of something. -
The "what - it -was- to-Be "
The "what - it - was - to-Be ", a portmanteau formed from Aristotle, means content that which constitutes the essence of things. So it is that which is a thing in itself, or rather his or What - determination. For this purpose, only the eidos of the question. Eidos has two meanings: the nature and form.
As a kind ( species) that determines eidos, which is a thing the essence. It thus determines the actual What a thing. Example: " Socrates is a man. " From a single essence Socrates is the kind of " man " testified. The human condition specifies the what - being of Socrates.
As shape determines the eidos the what - being of matter. In other words, the eidos is the matter until his destiny. Example: " The body of Socrates has human form. " The indeterminate body matter ( carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms, and others) obtained only by specifying the form, namely human form, his What - determination.
So that meets eidos as "what- it -was- to-Be " the requirement substance of something to be, on two levels as shown: as a kind of on the level of assembled individual things as form at the level of the components of individual things.
The General and the genus
The General has to be the power, cause of something in the opinion of Plato, and the graduates. Since the cause- His is an important criterion for the substance ( Book V, Chapter 8), it must be examined more closely. The General, as Plato, is a common factor for many things. Aristotle agrees. In addition, the General ( called by Plato "Ideas" ) is different from the individual. But here is where Aristotle's critique of Platonic doctrine: the eternal and immutable ideas are not only different from the individual things, but also separated; they are located in separate spheres of being or worlds ( chorismos accusation ).
To circumvent the separateness of the individual and the universal, the identity must be both accepted. This is to be understood that the universal is present and thus inseparable from them in individual things. By means of abstraction, that is a spiritual power, the minor properties of the individual filters out things, you come to the knowledge of the universal as the essential properties of things. The General, however, is inherent in things, so it can not exist independently of them. Thus, it does not meet the requirement of being able to exist independently, so can not be Underlying and therefore comes not as a substance in question.
The outlined reasoning justifies the Aristotelian conception of universals, which is referred to as a moderate realism, as opposed to the Platonic view that postulates an independent existence of the General especially single thing lichen.
Transitory, cosmology and Natural Theology (Book XII)
The XII. Book presents the entire context of metaphysics again represents a fraction, it is a completely separate treatise on the metaphysics. Nevertheless, his position at this point of metaphysics is meaningful. It no longer deals with the study of being as being, but is changing the viewing direction. Now, the ultimate principles ( arche ) and causes ( aition ) of the substances subject to the investigation of Aristotle. The substance itself ( ousia ) is the basis of all studies, because
- Whether a whole or a sequence, the substance is always in priority to quality and quantity
- The rest of beings ( properties ) depends on the substance
- Only the substance is independently separable
- All philosophers who have sought first principles, have made the matter the subject.
Aristotle differed initially to book XII three types of substance ( cf. 1069 a 30-35 )
- Perceptible and perishable = concrete individual things
- Perceptible to the senses and forever = celestial bodies
- Not perceptible to the senses and eternal unmoved mover =
To understand the principles of substance, it is a first step to deal with the principles of the perceptible substance. Thus Aristotle first examined in Chapters (2 ) to ( 5) the sensible substances in a kind of phenomenological analysis. Insofar here duplications arise to the substance of books, reveals the unique character of the XII. Book. The chapter ( 6) to ( 10) then deal with the unmoved mover itself, a consideration that is lacking in the substance books. However, the connection to the perceptible substances is maintained in these chapters.
A fundamental principle of perceptible substances is that they are subject to change. Change may mean, according to Aristotle, that the matter ( hyle ) itself has changed ( wood instead of stone) or that the existing matter changed in terms of quality, quantity or location. Change includes a contrast, for example, from white to non- white. However, this contrast is not arbitrary. A tone is non- white, but can not form a contrast to white. Change is much more tied to the substance of the underlying matter. If the matter itself is changing, this is a process (process) of growth and decay of a substance, a single object as such. Change means a transition from possibility to reality. But nonexistent the possibility after only accidents. Because a substance is not created out of nothing, but only from the underlying substances. The difference in the eternal heavenly bodies to the changing substances is that they are only subject to spatial changes.
The change is a process, the elements of matter and form as well as the Formberaubung ( privation ) are. Formberaubung example, the wetting of a dry road. Matter and form, which reaches the end of a change in an object, are not something that is caused by the change. Change is caused by an external stimulus, a "first -shattering ". Matter is what is changing, and the form is that in which it is changing. Both itself is not the cause. The cause for the emergence of a substance can be according to Aristotle
- A third - then the result is something created by art
- The thing itself - it is created by nature
- Random (based on something manufactured )
- Spontaneity ( a reason: based on nature )
Each substance is formed from some synonyms. Here for Aristotle synonym does not conceptually identical, but from the same species; therefore arise from roses roses and people from people. For artifacts, the cause of the plan like a house of the architect's plan or a sculpture is the notion of the artist. Substance is on the one hand the individual thing, on the other, in each case the matter and the form, if one conceives the latter as a principle, that is by its very nature ( its substance ) to. Matter is the Underlying ( hypokeimenon ). In the matter lies the possibility for a single thing. The shape makes the matter to a single thing, a " this there" ( death- ti). Through the form " this man because " is derived from the concept of species "man" of the single person. While the cause of motion must be made before the substance over time, the formal cause exists always at the same time and in each individual thing.
The next step of the substance analysis (Chapter 4) led Aristotle to the species and genera, and the question of identity.
There are substances for different levels of identity. Numerically identical individuals. Species and genera are multi-level principles. People are the most sort after identical to each other as they include at a higher level as a species of living things Identical. Finally, there are species and genera overarching identities, for example colors. This also includes the fact that any perishable substance containing matter, Formberaubung and shape. In the example of Aristotle, that thing is a color that matter an area ( as carrier ), the white form and the Formberaubung black.
The formal cause is something in the individual thing Included. The cause of motion, however, is something external that is not an element of the moved for an object. The matter of a body can be in the form of illness. By moving cause of the healing art is health for Formberaubung the disease.
The principles that are valid for substances, apply equally to accidents and changes, as these substances are dependent and dependent. This consideration can be also on the universal, ie species and genera are transmitted. Here, you have to consider that the individual is the principle of the individual.
One can say in general terms that a father has children, but the actual father-child relationship exists only between specific individuals. The same applies to relativa and qualitative properties.
After discussing the principles of perceptible substances, Aristotle turned to from the 6th chapter of the consideration of the eternal unmoved substance (s). Right at the beginning he presented the problem to be solved: it must necessarily give an eternal, unmoved first substance. Were it not for this, so everything would be transitory. However, this would mean that there could not be a substance.
A movement without incurring liability or offense, without beginning or end, the circular motion (cf. Physics, VIII, 8) It is eternal and continuous. As a first cause she has to be always really. Because if it consisted only of possibility, would all becoming interrupted, and that is impossible.
The 7th chapter Aristotle moved from the purely conceptual analysis to the consideration of the physical phenomena. The perceptible circular motion can be found in the sky, the accordingly likely to be forever for him. But as the sky itself is moved, this also requires a cause, by which it is moved. This first cause must be unmoved, because otherwise you fall into an infinite regress of causes. You must forever according to the preceding considerations, be a substance and real.
Aristotle saw in the circular motion of the stars, a quest for eternity and continuity. By the unmoved mover is the trigger of this effort, it causes the circular motion. After that is causing not a material but a spiritual process. The original substance dissolves movements from the fact that it is final cause ( causa finalis ). The fact that such a thing is conceivable, for Aristotle shows the relationship between reason and human action.
The first principle, then, according to Aristotle contains the uppermost simple concepts such as the Good, the Beautiful, the first Erstrebbare. The good, the beautiful and so is not only good, beautiful, etc., by the pursuit. There are objective properties by which strives reason. The reason as something not Substantive moves the action and, thus concrete objects. According to the original substance not only moves the fixed stars, but also, indirectly, all other things ( all nature ) by align them on the target cause. The first substance is pure thought; because it is eternal and continuous, it is an always rational activity. For the philosopher Aristotle pure rational activity is the highest aspired principle, that which gives pleasure to the highest degree. As the Supreme and the best the activity of reason is also the reason itself, which has itself for object. Man is the constant duration of the highest principle impossible in the first substance, however, the reason is everlasting. This eternal activity of reason is the best life ever, and this life best described Aristotle as God. God is the form of life in which the pursuit of the highest, according to the pure rational activity is realized eternal and continuous. God was for Aristotle something that arises from the determination of the first substance, something that has its counterpart in the activity of reason. The first substance has, according to Aristotle the following features:
Status of chapter 8 is among Aristotle - controversial researchers. This chapter examines Aristotle whether multiple and how many non- perceptible first substances exist. He grappled with the structure of the celestial spheres and leaning on results of the astronomer Callippus, where he could (after 330 BC) encountered only during his second Athenian period. On the other hand, the book XII was classified as relatively early literacy compared to the other books of the Metaphysics basis of other evidence. Therefore, included several performers that the eighth chapter was added later. For this also is the fact that you can find direct links between the seventh and the ninth chapter. Other performers see no major substantive and break even in the previous books first evidence of several substances.
That the heavenly bodies not follow a simple circular orbits, explained the ancient astronomy with different, mutually overlapping spheres that influence each other. With 26 spheres of an appropriate model had been designed in the Platonic Academy of Eudoxus. Callippus the model had expanded and Aristotle himself had introduced additional spheres to describe the celestial movements more accurately, and so came to a total of 55 spheres.
The number of first substances resulting from the number of ( assumed ) spheres, which are responsible for the movement of the heavenly bodies. Here, Aristotle assumed that the number of spheres was found necessary the correct number. The decisive factor is the basic context. Despite the various spheres of Aristotle recognized only one universe, there is only a first unmoved mover. The respective spheres of heaven are influencing unmoved mover of this first, which determines the sphere of fixed stars, depending. About the nature of the relationship is found in Aristotle, however, no statement.
In a final section of chapter 8, Aristotle tried to reconcile with the traditional religion, the theory of the unmoved movers.
Aristotle saw the Divine in the principle of the unmoved mover. All positive religion is added by the people and has to make the purpose a set of rules for the good of the community.
In chapter 9, Aristotle turned again the reason as the principle of the first substance. This is among the phenomena, although the most divine, but you have to justify why this is so. By Aristotle spoke of a phenomenon, it is evident that he made no distinction between divine and human reason. Already in the seventh chapter, he had pointed out that the difference to the people is that God has ever continually and always really about the reason. So Aristotle spoke de facto human reason and transferred his considerations in analogy to the divine reason.
The being of reason is a mental activity. Thinking is always directed at something. But this the first substance can be equated with reason, the thinking must not contain anything which is not the highest and best. So the reason can only themselves or used. Aristotle described the with the famous formula " thinking of thinking is thinking" ( noesis noesis noeseos - 1074 b 34). Since thinking is actually "to noein " is and the meaning of " noesis " includes rational activity, you can also say to increase the intelligibility: rational activity is thinking of thinking. And in the first substance, reason is concerned only with the highest and best.
In the 10th chapter Aristotle emphasized once again that the first substance is the goal, is aimed at all, similar to humans, animals and even plants have a quest in itself. Then he turned to other philosophical views to check to what extent the solutions are equivalent to his derivation of the unmoved mover. He refused to development principles which are based on opposites, because you do with it also the bad to a supreme principle. Plato had called as Empedocles and Anaximander good as the supreme principle. In Plato we find, however, no justification for the motion. This is friendship in Empedocles. Aristotle criticized here is that friendship is also bound to matter. Next he refused in Empedocles that this emanated from the dispute as a counter principle. Anaximander had accepted the good even as a cause of motion, but called no objective cause. Aristotle missed continue to other solutions that they offered no explanation for the distinction between perishable and the imperishable. He finally stressed that only with his solution, the unity of things would be created and underlined this with a quote from the Iliad as the final word of the XII. Book: " Never is a good polyarchy; only one is a ruler. " ( Iliad 2.204 )