Quercy [ kɛʀsi ] ( Occitan Carcin [ kaɾsi ], locally also [ kɔɾʃi ] ) is a former French province in the southwest of the country. It is bordered on the north by Limousin, on the west by Périgord and Agenais, on the south by Gascony and Languedoc, and to the east in the Rouergue and Auvergne.
The name is probably derived from the Latin name Cadurcinum, which in turn on the - refers Celtic tribe of the Kadurker - perhaps immigrated from southern Germany. The names of Haute -Guyenne and Quercy are often used interchangeably.
Since the French Revolution, the Quercy is divided between the departments of Lot and Tarn -et -Garonne, where it constitutes the essential part of the former and the northern half of the latter. Geographically will also distinguish between the skin -Quercy ( to Figeac, Rocamadour and Cahors ) and the Bas Quercy Quercy Blanc or ( at Montauban and Moissac ).
The rugged and wooded center of the Haut- Quercy has a highland region, with the highest elevations just 400 meters above sea level. achieve inst. To the south and south-west the landscape formations from shallow noticeably.
The traditional capital of the Quercy is Cahors, now the prefecture of the department of Lot. The largest city on the other hand is Montauban, prefecture of the department of Tarn -et- Garonne, on the former border between Quercy and Languedoc, an area that is very different from the rest of the province and historically and culturally always been to Toulouse and the rest Languedoc was ajar and thus should not be considered as an integral constituent of the Quercy.
The largest cities in the Quercy Montauban (approx. 56,000 inhabitants), Cahors (approx. 20,000 inhabitants), Moissac (approx. 12,000 inhabitants) and Figeac (about 10,000 inhabitants).
The main rivers in the Quercy Lot and its tributary Cele. The Dordogne is roughly the northern one, the Aveyron, the eastern and southern border of the historic province. In the southwest at Moissac Tarn forms the southern boundary of the Quercy.
The climate in the Haut-Quercy is strongly influenced by the Massif Central - the maximum daily temperatures in summer are around 30 ° C, in winter around 10 ° C, where freezing temperatures are common in cloudless winter nights. In consistently warmer Bas -Quercy and Atlantic climate influences are felt - the maximum daily temperatures in summer are a maximum of 35 ° C, in winter around 15 ° C; Night frosts are very rare.
The Quercy is 6,987 square kilometers and had at the 1999 census 275 984 inhabitants, which corresponds to a population density of 40 persons per square kilometer. Considering the town of Montauban from, the number of inhabitants on 224 129 and the population density reduced to 33 inhabitants per square kilometer.
The Quercy has always been dominated by agriculture, with its farming usually recedes because of the often rugged landscape formations and rocky soils in relation to the livestock (cattle, pigs, geese, ducks, turkeys, chickens ). Typical and precious edge products in the field of skin - Quercy saffron and truffle; Chestnut trees, nuts and fruits are typical products of the northern Quercy. In the southwest of the Quercy, however, the economy dominated field (wheat, corn, sunflower ); in the vicinity of the towns of Cahors, Montauban and Moissac also wine production. Industrial parks contrast, there is hardly any.
Especially in the north of the Quercy there are several megalithic tombs ( dolmen ) dating back to the megalithic cultures; individually standing menhirs are here - unlike in the neighboring Rouergue - rather rare. Also in the north of the Quercy, in Vayrac and Saint- Denis -les -Martel was probably the Celtic oppidum Uxellodunum, which was occupied by the troops of Julius Caesar in 51 BC, one year after the Battle of Alesia. It was the last major battle of the Gallic Wars.
From late antiquity, Cahors was a bishopric. In a document dating back to around 780 by a district by the name of pagus Cadurcensis the speech, which went up in the county of Toulouse in the 9th century. In the Middle Ages one of the pilgrimage routes to Santiago ( Via Podiensis ) of Le Puy Coming led over Figeac, Cahors and Moissac across the Quercy, Rocamadour with the possessed one of the most important pilgrimage destinations in France. In the early 13th century, the southern part of the Quercy fell into the sphere of influence of Cathar teachings; in the late 13th century, the Haute -Guyenne was involved in the territorial dispute between England and France, which ultimately in the Hundred Years' War ( 1337-1453 ) culminated. In the years 1373-1380 Bertrand du Guesclin reconquered the area for the French crown. The Bas -Quercy came in the 16th century under Protestant influence, while the Haut- Quercy remained Catholic. In 1779 the historical province of Rouergue was annexed to the Quercy. The French Revolution respected in the organization of the departments largely the old borders of Quercy and created for the département of Lot, from the 1808 parts were the newly created department of Tarn -et -Garonne slammed in the year.
The Quercy is rich in scenic (eg Regional Nature Park of the Causses du Quercy or the Chasm of Padirac ) and cultural interest: Prehistoric caves (eg Pech- Merle ) can be found as well as some of the most beautiful villages in France (eg. Autoire, Capdenac, Cardaillac, Carennac, Loubressac, Saint- Cirq- Lapopie in the north and Bruniquel and Lauzerte in the south and in the southwest ). Significant Romanesque churches (eg the former abbey church of Saint- Pierre ( Carennac ), Sainte -Marie in Souillac and Saint -Pierre in Moissac ) are to be admired as well as ordinary village churches, spectacularly located medieval pilgrimage sites (eg Rocamadour ) or castles (such as the Château de Belcastel at Lacave ). Medieval castles and Renaissance palaces (eg lock Assier ) are in the Quercy rare. The Pont valentre in Cahors is the most important example of a peri-urban medieval bridge in France.
As the Périgord, as well as the Quercy for its award-winning regional cuisine is known, which are based mainly on the preparation of poultry ( geese and ducks) (see foie gras and confit ). Also, truffles, chestnuts, nuts and fruit (apples, pears, figs, etc.) are also included.
- Galiot de Genouillac (1465-1546), diplomat and military leader under Louis XII. and Francis I., was born in Assier Castle.
- Clément Marot (1496-1544), poet at the court of Francis I, was born in Cahors.
- Joachim Murat (1767-1815), Marshal of Napoleon, (now Labastide -Murat ) was born in Labastide- Fortunière.
- Léon Gambetta (1838-1882), politician, was born in Cahors.