Seneschal in Scandinavia
Drost (s ) (from Middle Low German drossete ), also Drossart. References date back to the 10th century. Middle High German truh (t ) säze, or Old High German truh (t ) sazo, truh (t ) sezzo and Middle Low German droste, drotsete. The word is composed of druhti " crowd (mainly the retinue of a prince ) " or truht, or druht " followers afford " and säze "sit" (see " Sasse " as in yeoman ). Meaning: " someone who sits in the followers " - may have originally " projected the following " .. The term denoted in the late Middle Ages, primarily in northwestern Germany ( on the Lower Rhine, Westphalia, in East Frisia ), but also in Mecklenburg, Schleswig -Holstein and the Netherlands, an official who took the place of the sovereign for a defined administrative district in military, police and jurisdictional relationship. The function is comparable with the bailiff, bailiff, district president or district administrator.
The Droste post was a synonym of Hofamts the Steward. In the Bishopric of Münster, the Office of the Erbdrosten was clothed, among others since 1170 for hundreds of years by the family Droste Vischering and Erbamt of the bailiff of the cathedral chapter of Münster since 1266 by the family of the Droste zu Hulshoff. Even the office of Erblanddrosten in the Diocese of Osnabrück was a ständisches Erbamt that has been exercised since 1366 by the family of Bar ( nobility ) to Wasserburg Old Barenaue. The Erblanddrost was hereditary Chairman and Speaker of the Osnabrück chivalry, he had, in their meetings to complete the task to keep the seal of knighthood and the presidency to represent them in the court of the bishop and later to the state legislatures. His term of office functions were comparable with those of a Erbmarschalls. Also in the county of Mark, the bailiff in the middle of the 14th century were ritterbürtig. Even the office of bailiff in the country Electoral Cologne Duchy of Westphalia, where the entire resided in Arnsberg, government led by the same name, clad only nobles.
Drostei was both the county itself as well as the residential and official residence of the bailiff. Called Historic headquarters of the bailiff, also Droste farms or homes, for example, were the Drostei in Pinneberg and the Droste farms in Wolbeck and Neheim; Building with this designation were and still are also eg Bad Iburg, Bad Driburg, food, Extertal, Hagen, Haldern and Rheda while the Erbdrostenhof in Münster was the palace of the Droste family Vischering.
Since the beginning of modern times, the term Drost is also a title of the equipped with police and military powers nobles. In Hanover, the provincial government were still called to 1885 agricultural Droste.
From the office of bailiff, the frequent in northern Germany and the Netherlands Droste name derives, who is known specially by the poet Annette von Droste- Hulshoff.
Drost in Denmark and Sweden
Oberland Drost was the title which led most royal Danish governor in the counties of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst during the time of the personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark ( 1667-1773 ). In Holstein the southern part of Schleswig -Holstein was the (upper ) Landdrost the highest royal Danish official who was responsible for the preservation of the public peace and safety. He was also responsible for legislation and oversee all the official stuff. His direct representative in the absence of the House was, forest or office Vogt as a local official with the status of a bailiff, who also took over all tasks.
In Sweden, there were ( Empire ) droste ( drots, riksdrots ). The first written documents date back to 1276 and refer to a royal official. In the 14th century the Drost representative of the king was in his absence, or when the king was still a minor. One of the most powerful Droste this time was Bo Jonsson. In the 15th century the office was occupied only 1435-1442 and was replaced by the Empire Head ( riksföreståndare ). As honorary title of Drost dipped the end of the 16th century once again shortly.
Under King Gustav II Adolf, the Office of the Reich Drost was created in 1612: Magnus Brahe 1612-1633 hold office. First President of the Supreme Court was mandated in the Constitution of 1634 with the supervision of the judiciary in the realm of the kingdom Drost - Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna incumbent 1634-1640, a brother Axel Oxenstierna. He was succeeded by Per Brahe the Younger ( Per Brahe the yngre ), the Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie as Reich Drost ( " riksdrots " ) was replaced to 1684. Between 1686 and 1720 the office was not occupied, and the beginning of freedom time it was abolished. In 1787 the title " Drost " was picked up again and the Chancellor of Justice Carl Axel Wachtmeister, the boss of the entire legal system was awarded. Under the new Constitution of 1809 the title was, however, abolished. Carl Axel Wachtmeister was, until his death in office in 1810 as Sweden's first Justice Minister of State (new title for the head of the judiciary, in 1876 converted to the Minister of Justice ).