As gifts of the Holy Spirit (from the Greek charis, "gift, gift", singular "charisma", plural " charismata ", often colloquially referred to as " charisms " ) are in Christianity refers to special talents, which according to the New Testament by the Holy spirit will be given.
- 2.1 hymn by Rabanus Maurus in the 9th century
- 2.2 hymn by Stephen Langton of Canterbury in the 13th century
- John Bonaventura 1267 2.3
- 2.4 Heinrich purchase wrestler in the 15th century
- 3.1 20th century
- 4.1 Martin Luther
- 4.2 The Lutheran doctrine in the 17th century
- 4.3 The 19th century
- 4.4 The 20th century
Bible references to the gifts of the Spirit
- The Old Testament prophet Isaiah foretold six traits of the Holy Spirit: " But from the stump of Jesse grows out of a rice ... The Spirit of the Lord can be attributed to him down: the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of God. " (Isaiah 11.2 EU)
- Gift of miracles (1 Kings 17,16 EU)
- Gift of wisdom (1 Kings 3.5 to 28 EU)
There are in the New Testament several different lists of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, in Romans 12:6-8 EU, 1 Cor 12:8-10 EU, EU 12:28-31, Eph 4,7.11 f EU, 1 Pt 4:9-11 EU. One of the gifts of the Spirit are according to 1 Cor 12:8-10:
- Notification of wisdom
- Mediation of knowledge
- Power of faith
- Cure diseases
- Miraculous powers
- Prophetic speeches
- Discernment of Spirits
- Tongues and their interpretation
The first gift of the Spirit to the believer is, according to Paul, freedom (2 Cor 3.17 EU). For a variety of latest gifts of the Spirit of the Apostles mentions the necessity of love ( agape ) as the most important condition for the use of spiritual gifts (1 Cor 13:1-3 EU). A particularly desirable he describes in the following chapter the gift of prophecy: "Pursue love after! But tends also towards the spiritual gifts, especially after the prophesy "(1 Cor 14,1 EU).
Spiritual gifts in theology and in the hymns of the medieval church
Rabanus Maurus hymn after the 9th century
The gifts of the Holy Spirit in the traditional of Rabanus Maurus Pentecost hymn Veni, Creator Spiritus called " Septiformis " ( the following text is the presumed after Dreves and flower stock ):
Hymn by Stephen Langton of Canterbury in the 13th century
From the Siebenteiligkeit of spiritual gifts also sings Stephen Langton of Canterbury in the last section of his Pfingstsequenz Veni, Sancte spiritus:
John Bonaventura 1267
In 1267 John Bonaventura published his work "On the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit" ( " de septem donis Spiritus Sancti Collationes " ), the impact on the further development of doctrine of the Church and the Franciscan spirituality. Bonaventura was estimated as a Doctor of the Church in the Western Church.
Heinrich purchase wrestler in the 15th century
Heinrich purchase wrestler created in the 15th century, a German spiritual poem in which he faced the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, the seven deadly sins: ' Of the seven deadly sins and the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit '.
Roman Catholic perspective
In the Catholic tradition, a distinction later, according to the following seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, through which the work of the Spirit is expressed at the people in the Catechism of the Catholic Church 1831, the number symbolism:
- Understanding / insight
- Knowledge / (Sacred ) science
- Fear of God
This ranking is derived from the above-cited passage in the Bible Isaiah 11:2 (-3). While here in the original Hebrew only six gifts are mentioned (see above), came in the Greek translation of the Septuagint and the Latin translation of the Vulgate even added a seventh gift: in the Hebrew, the term appears " fear of God " that is once again in the following verse Isaiah 11.3, while the two above-mentioned translations at these points two different words, one use for " piety " and one for " fear of God ". So they came up with the number seven, which stands in symbolic relation to the seven virtues (faith, hope, charity, prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance ) and by Pope Gregory the Great compiled seven deadly sins ( pride, avarice, lust, envy, gluttony, anger, sloth ), as well as the seven sacraments ( baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, sacrament of penance, marriage, ordination, anointing of the sick ).
Also among the seven liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy ) and the Holy Spirit as the " inventor" is a reference, which can, for example, resulting in a 1180 illustration of the encyclopedia Hortus Deliciarum the abbess Herrad of Landsberg can recognize (d. 1195).
For an automatic availability of the gifts of the Holy Spirit argues Hans Urs von Balthasar. It assumes that the Holy Spirit has not only the function with his gifts to ennoble our lives. The Holy Spirit " is a sharp, cutting wind, who can teach us the gnashing of teeth. Who will measure up, he had the spirit? No party ... captures the pigeon itself. It comes and it goes. She floats down, but she does not sit down. The spirit of luxury storms where he wants! "
Protestant tradition and vision
The Protestant tradition initially creates no greater value on number symbolism and on - systematics, but assumes that there are many gifts of the Spirit that illuminate life.
Martin Luther puts it in his Small Catechism of 1529 as follows:
However, Martin Luther translated for his Wittenberg hymnal of 1524 the Latin hymn by Rabanus Maurus in the German language, keeping fixed at the predetermined " Siebenfaltigkeit " gifts of the Spirit, which met from 1996 as a hymn in the German Protestant hymn book.
The Lutheran doctrine in the 17th century
Inspired by Martin Luther, the Protestant church teachers formulated in the framework of Lutheran orthodoxy of the 17th century in its Latin written dogmatics a running pneumatology, especially the gifts of the Spirit are widely deployed and considered by the. The church teacher Johann Conrad Dannhauer (Strasbourg, 1649 ) and Johann Andreas Quenstedt ( Wittenberg, 1685) describe the following spiritual gifts as a seven- functions of the Holy Spirit:
- Vocation calls the Holy Spirit and calls people into the kingdom of God ( vocatio )
- Rebirth: as children of the world will be born naturally, the Holy Spirit can one be born again spiritually as a child of God ( regeneratio )
- Conversion: the Holy Spirit returns us to divine powers and leads us to God and his kingdom ( conversio )
- Justification: the Holy Spirit ensures that God the actual people altogether in the affirmative, even though he is a sinner in the core of his being ( iustificatio )
- Repentance, the Holy Spirit makes it possible for a man turns away from evil, and at the same time, God turns ( poenitentia )
- Union with God, the Holy Spirit ensures that a person can connect to the new world of God ( unio mystica, mystical union " be planted as vines in the vine of Christ" )
- Sanctification: the person receives the Holy Spirit the power to grow a variety of fruits of the Spirit, he is at the core of his humanity renewed ( renovatio ).
This came in the Evangelical Church through the work of the Lutheran -thinking high orthodoxy - a hundred years after the Reformation - a seven -part scheme again, which is described as differentiated spiritual journey. The gifts of the Spirit are - understood as a dynamic, spiritual process - in this system.
The 19th century
Friedrich Schleiermacher distinguishes in his doctrine no individual and certain gifts of the Spirit, but assumes that the Holy Spirit takes total in a human dwelling: "Every regenerate man is the Holy Spirit partake, so that there is no living fellowship with Christ without indwelling the Holy Spirit and overthrown. "
The 20th century
Gerhard Ebeling remains in its dogma of the Christian faith formally on the line of Schleiermacher by deliberately avoids the enumeration of " separate spiritual gifts " and this doctrine focused: " The primary gift of the Holy Ghost ... is not this or that from him to distinctive gift, but the Holy Spirit himself, and thus the presence of God in man., the primary gift of the Holy spirit is thus the presence of the sender of all gifts, participation in God himself. "
Wilfried Joest will contest in his dogmatics in detail on the gifts of the Holy Spirit and asks: " Are our church life such extraordinary effects also about become so strange, because it has become too bourgeois, too much adapted to the normality of the world's course, too little of the joy of Easter and hope is fulfilled? ".
The Spiritual Renewal in the Evangelical Church in Germany attacks according to the " Sola Scriptura principle " ( scripture alone counts for Protestants ) on the gifts lists of the New Testament and the statements that Christians should desire the gifts of the Holy Spirit, returned and teaches them in seminars and books.
Through the charismatic movements within Christianity, the teachings were imparted by the new role and the gifts of the Holy Spirit from a different perspective.
Pentecostalism and the charismatic movement go (based on the letters of the Apostle Paul in the New Testament) believe that every Christian has gifts of the Holy Spirit. The gifts of the Spirit are more natural talents, they are them but not opposite.
Through the gifts of the Spirit, the church ( the Body of Christ ) is to be built.
In the charismatic movement usually the following gifts to the gifts of the Spirit are counted:
- Prophecy / prophecy (Romans 12 EU)
- Speaking in tongues
- Interpretation of tongues
- Healing of the Sick
- Wisdom / knowledge
- Discernment of Spirits
- Teaching / preaching (Rom 12 EU)
- (Municipality ) line (Rom 12 EU)
- Pastoral ministry / pastoral care
- Exhortation (Rom 12 EU)
Other gifts of the Spirit
The following gifts are sometimes also counted among the gifts of the Holy Spirit:
- Serving ( diakonia )
- Willingness to suffer
- Voluntary poverty