The Cordillera Apolobamba is a mountain range in the eastern border region of Bolivia and Peru. The Cordillera Apolobamba extends over 4837 square kilometers and is located in the departments of Puno (Peru ) and La Paz are the higher mountains and heavily glaciated part of strong alpine character. Main towns in the area are Apolobamba the eponymous Apolo, Pelechuco, Charazani and, at a height of 3,800 mm above sea level, Curva, the capital of the Kallawaya people.
The highest peak of the Cordillera Apolobamba is the 6,044 meters high Chaupi Orco. Other important mountains are the clear-cut Cololo with 5,916 meters, also Palomani Grande ( 5,730 m), Nubi ( 5,710 m), Canisaya ( 5,706 m), Montserrat Norte ( 5,655 m ) and relatively easy to besteigende Cuchillo with 5,655 m.
The climate in the Apolobamba area is characterized by great height and rather cool. In the winter dry season, it is during the day almost continuously sunny. The sun is very strong and heats the air up to 20 degrees. The lack of cloud cover and altitude, the nights are very cold, with often two -digit sub-zero temperatures. In the rainy season the nights are less cold and the days by the afternoon cloudiness less warm. The average annual temperature in the highlands is 4.5 degrees Celsius. The annual rainfall varies, depending on the altitude, sun exposure and able to adjacent mountain ranges 300-1900 mm.
The total area of the Cordillera Apolobamba 807 different plant species are registered, estimates range from about 1500 species of. The hochandine vegetation consists mainly of hard mosses, the Bofedales and the hard and pungent Ichugras. Can go up to almost 5000 meters above sea level grow the Quinualbaum, which has become very rare in the Andes. In the cloud forest and transition zones to the tropical rain forest, nearly any plant forms are represented.
Although the Cordillera Apolobamba houses the highest Condordichte Bolivia, anyway you get the great scavengers rarely seen. Also, the cougar is still to be found in the Punaregionen, but is also only very rarely encountered because of his shyness. Significantly more of the Andean fox is seen more frequently the hare -like Viscachas which usually hide between stones. The domesticated llamas and alpacas can be found on almost every suitable high surface. Very often you get to see even lizards, smaller birds of prey such as the hawk.
During the Inca domination in the 13th century Yahuar Huacac crossed the Cordillera with 15,000 men and conquered the region in the Amaru Mayu, now the Río Madre de Dios. A century later, the Inca Túpac Yupanqui with 10,000 men in the footsteps of his great-grandfather down to the region of Beni in the Amazon lowlands. Later sent Yupanqui's son, Huayna Capac, his general Hurcu Huaranca with another 10,000 troops to the region.
After the conquest of the Spaniards in search of the famous Patiti or El Dorado founded in 1573 the governor of the province Arexaca (now Province Larecaja ), Juan Álvarez de Maldonado, the city Apolo and explored the first Spaniard to the region.
There is a continuous 5-day crossing ability of the area of Pelechuco by Curva. Here, several passes must be overcome to 5000 meters. Lack accommodation is the tour can only be achieved with tents and pack animals. Parts of the route are only suitable for sure-footed hikers, largely but routes are used, the open up the few remaining gold mines.