( Listen russian Гвардейск ( / i ), translated roughly as " City Guard "? ; German Tapiau; lithuanian Tepliuva, Tepliava; Polish Tapiawa ) Gwardeisk is a city in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast with a population of 13,899 (as of October 14, 2010 ). It is the seat of the Gwardeiskoje gorodskoje posselenije ( Urban settlement Gwardeisk ), is incorporated in the next to the city was the settlement Gwardeisk Prigorodnoje ( Hasenbergstraße ).
- 7.1 Demographics
Gwardeisk located on a mountainous hill by the river Pregel in the historic East Prussia, about 35 kilometers east of Kaliningrad (Königsberg ), on the main road A229, the former National Highway 1, and on the railway line Kaliningrad Nesterov, the main railway line from Kaliningrad in the direction of Russian heartland, the former end of the Prussian Eastern Railway - line to Eydtkuhnen (now Tschernyschewskoje ). From the Pregel branches at Gwardeisk from the Deime.
The official place name until 1946, evolved from Tapiow ( 1255 ) on Castrum Tapiow, quod Prutheni nominant Surgurbi ( Dusburg, 1326) to the final German designation Tapiau that is proven since 1684. This name is derived from the Old Prussian words "tape, teplu, toplu, tapis " = warm, "tape " = heat, temperature and " sur Garbis " = around the mountain.
The city rights were granted Tapiau 1722.
1895 comprised the city post office, second class, Telegraph, goods depot of the Reichsbank, gardeners educational institution with fruit wine factory, provincial correctional and country poorhouse, biscuit and sugar factory, steam cutting and grinding mills, breweries, shipping, trade with wood, stone, grain, butter and cheese. In the reformatory were blankets, coarse cloth ( Want), cotton stuff (hives ), straw mats and fishing nets made .
From 1818 to 1945, the city Tapiau to the district Wehlau in the district of the province of East Prussia was Königsberg.
On January 25, 1945 Tapiau was occupied by the Red Army. As one of the few cities in northern East Prussia Tapiau survived the Second World War without major damage and is relatively well preserved even today.
Is on the market, despite the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, remains a monument to Lenin.
See the main article: Church of St John the Baptist ( Gwardeisk )
On today's Ploshchad Pobedy (former market place) is the built in 1502 former Protestant church Tapiaus, the present church of John the Baptist. Destroyed several times by fire found out the house of God 1767/68 a repair. In the sacristy, the custom built by Lovis Corinth Triptych with pictures Jesus was on the cross and the Apostle Paul and the evangelists Matthew. The church was in 1945 used as a storage and office building, and is now - used for worship purposes of the Russian Orthodox Church - after a thorough restoration.
From the Reformation to 1945 was in Tapiau an evangelical church with two pastors at the town church and a preacher in the prison community of healing and nursing home. To her belonged to a wide -area parish with more than 20 locations. In the year 1925 9.000 associated church members were counted in a census in Tapiau. Tapiau belonged to the church district Wehlau (now Russian Snamensk ) within the Ecclesiastical Province of East Prussia the Church of the Old Prussian Union. With the end of World War II due to flight and expulsion of the indigenous population broke the Evangelical church life in Tapiau.
In 1997, in Gwardeisk a German - Russian community within the provost Kaliningrad in the composite of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of European Russia. It is a branch church of the Resurrection Church in Kaliningrad (Königsberg ).
By 1945 there were in Tapiau a Roman Catholic church that was built in 1904 and whose parish church was St. Joseph 's Church. The village belonged to the diocese of Warmia. Today again there is a Catholic parish in the uliza Telmana ( Thälmannstraße ) has its seat in the house St. Joseph and currently (as of 2011) of the Divine Word missionaries and members of the Schoenstatt Movement is managed.
The former Protestant church on the market square has been used since 1998 by a community of the Russian Orthodox Church, which is affiliated with the Diocese of Kaliningrad and Baltijsk since 2009.
There are several daily buses to Kaliningrad city. The bus starts from the Market Square.
In addition to an internet cafe, a bank branch with ATM and various retail and grocery stores characterize numerous kiosks, where especially alcoholic beverages are sold, the cityscape. Around the city have since 2004 various agricultural enterprises and medium-sized enterprises, including for the production of household appliances, resettled. Further, in Gwardeisk a board, a mobile phone shop and several bars. On weekends, free traders and individuals often offer agricultural products, textiles and household items by the roadside for sale.
There are Gwardeisk in a Russian Orthodox cemetery, a secondary school, a state social counseling center with an adjacent, general medical service, a government, veterinary food inspection agency and a public sports field.
The German - Russian House in Kaliningrad offers in Gwardeisk in cooperation with GIZ and the Foreign Office training in technical trades.
The originating from the Soviet era apartment block in the Telmana and on the exit road to Kaliningrad are heated in winter with not only individually controlled district heating. Since its construction in the 1960s and 1970s, these apartment blocks now largely in private hands, have remained unchanged to the external facades and in many cases inside.
The household waste is collected in Gwardeisk on landfills located near the town and burnt there from time to time, resulting in an impairment of air and water quality.
Note: Census data
Arranged by year of birth
- Albert I of Brandenburg -Ansbach († March 20, 1568 in Tapiau ), first Duke of Prussia
- Johann Ernst of Wallenrodt ( born January 3, 1615 Tapiau, † 1697 ), Administrative Officer in the Duchy of Prussia, built from the Wallenrodtsche library.
- Gregorovius Gustav (1810-1862), lawyer, Phil Hellene; Actor, singer and editor in New York
- Lovis Corinth ( born July 21, 1858 in Tapiau, † 1925), a famous German painter; created for the Protestant parish church of the city, the altar painting " Golgotha "
- Bernhard Anchorman (14 February 1859 in Tapiau, † 1943), ethnologist and explorer of Africa
- Ernst Mollenhauer ( born August 27, 1892 in Tapiau, † 1963), a landscape painter
- Berthold Mikat (* 1912 in Tapiau, † 1990), an epidemiologist
- Hans -Heinrich Vangerow ( born April 4, 1924 in Tapiau ), German forester and historian
- Since 1970 on the Lower Saxon town Bassum