Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus

Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus is a type of bacteria. It is one of the Firmicutes division, the Gram test is thus positive. The GC content of this type is 40 mol percent. It has been isolated together with Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans from the Korean fish sauce Jeotgal. The species name refers to the property of the kind to tolerate colder temperatures, it is psychrophilic. The genome of the bacterial strain DSM 19085 was Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus 2013 sequenced.

  • 5.1 Literature
  • 5.2 Notes and references



The cells are Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus kokkenförmig, with a diameter of 0.6-1.1 microns. Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus forms, like all species of the genus, no endospores. The species can not move under their own power itself, so it is not motile.

On solid media, the cells grow into smooth, shiny colonies on marine agar, these have a bright yellow color. In the plan, the colonies are round-shaped to somewhat irregular, in the lateral view they appear slightly convex sublime. If the incubation period is extended, is of the colonies - formed a bright pink pigment that diffuses into the nutrient medium - as well as in the related species Jeotgalicoccus halophilus.

Growth and metabolism

Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus is heterotrophic, he does not perform photosynthesis. Metabolism is a facultative anaerobe, that is the nature shows even under anaerobic conditions - ie the absence of oxygen - Growth and performs a fermentation by. The pH for best growth is 7.0-8.0, from a pH of 5.5 is no more growth instead. The species is psychrophilic, so it can multiply even at low temperatures. To this also refers the selected species name. Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus shows growth in the range of 4-34 ° C, the optimum temperature is 20-25 ° C, above 35 ° C. No growth. A content of 2-5 % of sodium chloride (NaCl) in the culture medium is optimal values ​​of up to 14% NaCl, can be tolerated. If no NaCl is present, there is no growth. Another study by Zhu Xiang Liu et al concludes that even at 0 % NaCl growth takes place.

The enzyme catalase is present, the oxidase test is positive. In contrast, J. has psychrophilus not have the enzyme urease, so can degrade no urea. He is also not capable of nitrate reduction. As part of the chemoorgano - heterotrophic metabolism J. psychrophilus can only utilize the sugar sucrose from those investigated by Yoon et al tested organic compounds. This acid is formed, but the test result falls out only weakly positive. According to the results of Zhu Xiang Liu et al of 2011, D -glucose and maltose can be recycled.

Most of the investigated carbohydrates can not be utilized by fermentation with acid formation by J. psychrophilus. These include the monosaccharides L-arabinose, D- fructose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L- rhamnose, D-ribose and D- xylose, the disaccharide D- cellobiose, lactose, melibiose and D- trehalose, and trisaccharides D- melezitose and D- raffinose. Nor do the sugar alcohols adonitol, D -mannitol, D- sorbitol and myo -inositol are recycled.

Chemotaxonomic features

The murein layer of the cell wall contains L-lysine as the diamino acid diagnostically important amino acid in position 3 of the peptide bridge. The peptidoglycan type is A3α, besides lysine nor the amino acids glycine and L- alanine present. As is usual for Jeotgalicoccus species, the main menaquinone MK- 7th Occurring in the membrane lipids, fatty acids are mainly molecules with an odd number of carbon atoms ( C15), and no double bond (saturated fatty acids). It is the branched-chain fatty acids with the abbreviations anteiso - C15: 0 ( anteiso - pentadecanoic acid ) and iso- C15: 0 (iso- pentadecanoic acid ), they account for 33.0 and 18.6%.


The genome of the bacterial strain DSM 19085 Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus ( the type strain of the species ) was sequenced in 2013 and as a "durable design " (permanent draft) published. Previously, the nucleotides of the 16S rRNA have already been identified for phylogenetic studies, a typical representative for prokaryotes the ribosomal RNA. The genome has a size of 2346 kilobase pairs (kb ), which is about 50% of the genome size of Escherichia coli. The genome has been explored in the context of CMM project, in which 1000 genomes of microorganisms ( one thousand microbial genomes ) sequenced to create a " genomic encyclopedia" of type strains ( Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains). In this way, should be clarified by phylogenetic analyzes the relationships of microorganisms. The result of sequencing reveals a low GC content ( the fraction of nucleic bases guanine and cytosine) in the bacterial DNA, it is at about 40 mole percent. Yoon et al had a GC content of 42 mole percent identified during its investigation in 2003, but with the HPLC uses a different method of determination. A low GC content is typical of the members of the order Bacillales and other Firmicutes.


Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus is non-pathogenic ( " pathogenic " ), he is the biological substances in connection with the TRBA (Technical Rules for Biological Agents ) assigned 466 Risk Group 1.


The type Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus belongs to the family of Staphylococcaceae in the order of Bacillales. Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus was with J. halotolerans ( the type species of this genus ) of Jung- Hoon Yoon et al first described in 2003. The case discovered bacterial strain J. psychrophilus YKJ -115 is the type strain of the type he was in the collections of microorganisms in Korea (as KCCM 41449 ), Japan (as JCM 11199 ) and in Germany at the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures as J 19085 deposited. psychrophilus DSM.

In the phylogenetic study, a relationship was found to be of the genus Salinicoccus. However, the comparison of the sequence of the 16S rRNA with the studied species Salinicoccus Salinicoccus roseus and Salinicoccus hispanicus showed only a similarity of about 93 %, so that a new species was proposed in a newly established genus. Also in phenotypic traits differs Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus of the Salinicoccus species. For example, S. roseus casein and starch may be hydrolyzed, whereas in J. psychrophilus is not the case. Compared with S. hispanicus to J. psychrophilus differs from this by the negative test for urease and nitrate reduction. Differences between the jointly discovered species psychrophilus J. and J. halotolerans show themselves in the domains of carbohydrates, which can be recycled (see overview).


The genus name is derived from Jeotgalicoccus the New Latin word Jeotgalum and refers to the locality of the first-described article you isolated from the Korean fish sauce Jeotgal. The species name J. psychrophilus derives from the ancient Greek word psychros ( cold) and Greek philos ( like some) and refers to the type of property to tolerate colder temperatures, it is psychrophilic.


The species was isolated from the Korean fish sauce Jeotgal.