Jeotgalicoccus is a genus of bacteria. It belongs to the family of Staphylococcaceae. Is named the genus after the Korean fish sauce Jeotgal from which the first discovered species of bacteria of the genus newly described was isolated. Many members of the genus are halotolerant to halophilic, that is, they can live in environments with high salt concentration. By 2011, nine different species were discovered by Jeotgalicoccus.

  • 4.1 Literature
  • 4.2 Notes and references



The cells of Jeotgalicoccus species are kokkenförmig and not capable of active movement, they are not motile. They are gram- positive and do not form endospores.

Growth and metabolism

Metabolism is in most species facultative anaerobic, ie they show even under anaerobic conditions - ie the absence of oxygen - Growth and perform a fermentation by. One by Zhu Xiang Liu et al. 2011 newly discovered species is, however, strictly aerobic. Furthermore, the mass and energy exchange is to be labeled as chemoorgano -heterotrophic. The catalase and oxidase test is positive. Many members of the genus are halotolerant to halophilic, that is, they can live in environments with high salt concentration. The pH for the best growth is 7.0-8.0, while at a pH value of less than 5.5 no growth occurs.

The representatives of the genus do not possess the enzyme urease ( Exception: J. halophilus ) and are not able to reduce nitrate. You can break down the amino acid tyrosine by hydrolysis. On the other hand they can not hydrolyze the substrates casein, starch, xanthine and hypoxanthine, nor are they able to Äskulinspaltung. This list is based on the first description of the genus (2003) by Jung- Hoon Yoon et al, some later discovered and described species show some deviations from this generic description, for example, they are not able to hydrolyze tyrosine (see summary table ).

The species of the genus can be distinguished by the following characteristics. With the discovery of additional Jeotgalicoccus species these differentiating features have been enhanced.

For some tests, no data ( nd a ) are present in the species, ( ) indicates a weak positive result. In part, conducted a later study by another group of scientists to a different test result, this is with reference to the literature and the addition " or" also indicated.

Chemotaxonomic features

The murein layer of the cell wall contains L-lysine as the diamino acid diagnostically important amino acid in position 3 of the peptide bridge. The main menaquinone is MK -7, according to the extended description of the species may also occur MK -6. Occurring in the membrane lipids, fatty acids are mainly molecules with an odd number of carbon atoms ( C15), and no double bond (saturated fatty acids). Is the branched-chain fatty acids with abbreviations anteiso - C15: 0 ( pentadecanoic acid anteiso ) and iso- C15: 0 ( pentadecanoic acid iso- ). The GC content (the proportion of nucleobases guanine and cytosine ) is located in the bacterial DNA 36-42 mol percent.


For the isolation of Jeotgalicoccus species from environmental samples and for the cultivation of bacteria culture media are containing peptone, yeast extract and mineral salts. In addition, most species on Baird -Parker agar ( BP ) can cultivate a culture medium, which is also used for members of the genus Staphylococcus. The studied species grow on BP as black colonies that do not form a courtyard, thus they resemble the colonies of coagulase-negative staphylococci. For further differentiation, the biochemical properties can be examined or take place genetic studies, such as by PCR ( polymerase chain reaction).


The genus belongs to the family of Jeotgalicoccus Staphylococcaceae in the order of Bacillales. The type species is Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans. It was - together with the newly established genus - 2003 by Jung- Hoon Yoon et al. first described. 2011 Jeotgalicoccus nanhaiensis was discovered by Zhu Xiang Liu et al and first described, this also led to an extended description of the species. Phylogenetic analyzes show a close relationship to the genera Salinicoccus ( Ventosa et al., 1990) and Nosocomiicoccus ( Morais et al. 2008). Related genera are Macrococcus ( Kloos et al. 1998) and Staphylococcus ( Rosenbach 1884), these four genera together with Jeotgalicoccus the family Staphylococcaceae.

The following species are known (as of 2014):

  • Jeotgalicoccus aerolatus Martin et al. 2011
  • Jeotgalicoccus coquinae Martin et al. 2011
  • Jeotgalicoccus halophilus Liu et al. 2011
  • Jeotgalicoccus halotolerans Yoon et al. 2003
  • Jeotgalicoccus huakuii Guo et al. 2010
  • Jeotgalicoccus marinus Chen et al. 2009
  • Jeotgalicoccus nanhaiensis Liu et al. 2011
  • Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis Hoyles et al. 2004
  • Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus Yoon et al. 2003

Occurrence and significance

The genus name is derived from Jeotgalicoccus the New Latin word Jeotgalum and refers to the locality of the first-described Art It has been isolated from the Korean fish sauce Jeotgal. The habitat of other species soils, especially those that are in contact with salt water as the sediment of a salt lake or a coastal beach. Therefore, many of the previously discovered species are halotolerant or halophilic. Also beings Jeotgalicoccus species were isolated, for example, from the oral flora of a seal or a sea urchin.

Similar Micrococcus species Jeotgalicoccus was also detected in the air or dust. Therefore, scientists suspect the Technical University of Munich, that Jeotgalicoccus species are widespread in the environment that they have not yet been discovered or identified. One reason is the similarity to the Staphylococcus genus, with which they can be easily confused and - unlike Jeotgalicoccus - for a long time is known. The scientists therefore designate the species as "almost Entirely unknown" ( " almost completely unknown "). At the same time they propose to carry out with the help of cultivation on Baird -Parker agar epidemiological studies on the spread of Jeotgalicoccus species, to learn more about metabolism, but also a possible pathogenicity of the bacteria.