Staphylococcus epidermidis

The Staphylococcaceae are a family of bacteria. It is gram-positive bacteria, the cell walls of many layers of so-called murein ( peptidoglycan ) exist.

  • 3.1 Literature
  • 3.2 Notes and references


The 2010 newly described family Staphylococcaceae includes Gram-positive bacteria from the order of Bacillales. The GC content (the proportion of nucleobases guanine and cytosine) in the bacterial DNA is - as with all Firmicutes - low. The second major group of gram-positive bacteria, the Actinobacteria, however, have a high GC content.

For the species of this family that they do not form endospores as Überdauerungsformen and the cells are kokkenförmig and immobile. The species of this family are facultative anaerobes in general, they are catalase - positive, but may differ in the oxidase test. This is negative for Staphylococcus, while positive in the other genera. Various kinds reduced if there is no oxygen, nitrate to nitrite, and to ammonium ( nitrification ). In the denitrification as a form of anaerobic respiration of nitrate instead of oxygen acts as Elektronenakzeptator.


Current systematics

Genera of this family are (as of 2014):

Changed system

In the 1950s the distinguishing features of the then known genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were not yet clearly defined. A separation made ​​sense because of the conduct of oxygen ( facultative anaerobes or strict aerobes ) and because of the GC content ( low or high), yet both classes of common family Micrococcaceae were assigned. The newly described species in the 1990s and Salinicoccus Macrococcus was assigned here.

More and more defined chemotaxonomic distinguishing characteristics and phylogenetic analyzes of the 16S rRNA - a typical representative for prokaryotes the ribosomal RNA - then led to the realization that the systematics of these bacteria must be fundamentally redefined. 2001 was suggested that the genera Staphylococcus, Gemella, Salinicoccus and Macrococcus summarize in a joint family and thus separate from the Micrococcaceae.

On the basis of further investigations made ​​grinder and Bell 2009 a proposal to introduce a new family Staphylococcaceae, including the then known genera Staphylococcus, Jeotgalicoccus, Macrococcus and Salinicoccus. This proposal was then recognized with publication in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology ( IJSEM ) in 2010 as a valid taxon. This approach is in the Bacteriological Code ( English for " Bacteriological Code") prescribed for the classification of bacteria.

The genus Gemella was reckoned to 2009 also to the family Staphylococcaceae ( which was not accepted on that date within the meaning of bacterial systematics). However, it could be shown that Gemella because of several characteristics of other genres so different that the assignment to a joint family no longer seemed justifiable.