Kolin ( German Kolin, older and Cologne on the Elbe ) is a town in the Central Bohemian Region, about 60 km east of Prague. The town lies on the river Elbe and on an important railway junction. Until 1995, here ended the navigation on the river.
- 7.1 Notes and references
- 7.2 External links
Founded by the Bohemian King Ottokar II, the city took its first mention in 1261st Under the kings Charles IV and Wenceslas IV, the city has received numerous privileges and prospered greatly. She was one of the most important royal towns in Bohemia. In 1437 a fortress was built, which was later rebuilt into a castle and a brewery. Bedřich Strážnice sold in 1458 the rule Kolin the Bohemian King George of Podiebrad. 1472 inherited his son Viktorin of Münsterberg the Kolin. This left the government in 1475 to his brother Hynko, who in the same year the Matthias Corvinus left, the Kolin chose his bohemian base. Until 1477 Hungarian troops were stationed throughout the rule. In accordance with an agreement concluded with Vladislav II comparison Kolin fell in 1487 to the Czech Crown, and became the seat of a royal Kreishauptmann. Later on, the rule was pledged and was among others from 1531 to 1536 the Pernsteinern. 1556 was Ferdinand I. Kolin his general Karl von Zierotin as a deposit. His son Kaspar Melchior sold the reign 1591 to Emperor Rudolf II. Received 1611 Wenzel Graf Kinsky Kolin of Matthias II as a thank you gift for supporting the overthrow of his brother. Kinsky was a little later when Emperor Matthias of favor and was sentenced in 1615 to death and loss of his goods. He fled to Krakow and was later commuted to life-long imprisonment. In 1618, he returned to Bohemia and was able to rule Chlumetz recover. The rule Kolin 1628 connected to the rule Poděbrady. Between 1705 and 1745 the government was pledged to the Principality Salzburg. 1750 was a castellan in Kolin again resident, who was subordinate to the captain of Poděbrady.
On June 18th 1757 the Battle of Kolin, in which the Austrians, the Prussians under Frederick the Great beat occurred. In the course of josephischen reforms was the abolition of all five belonging to the reign of Kolin yards, and the lands were divided. The remaining assets of the rule were sold in 1827 to the coming of Wallern textile manufacturer Jacob Veith, who had brought it through the production of Piquéwaren great wealth. Veith, who was elevated to the hereditary baron, died in 1833. The legacy, which included a total of three gentlemen, his son Wenceslas Baron Veith joined († 1852) on. After the abolition of patrimonial Kolin in 1850 as the seat of a district. Veiths heirs sold the goods in Kolin 1862 Franz Horsky, of a sugar factory founded in 1870. His grandson Adolf judge had 1894 10.6 km long narrow gauge Kolin build beet web ( Františkov ) and Býchory to Eleonorenhof ( Eleonorov ) led by the sugar factory to Franzenshof. 1922 introduced the sugar factory operating. From 1935, the Kaliwerke AG produced Zyklon B for the Degesch GmbH. In 1966, the closure of the beet web and the partial degradation of the track.
The city is currently structured into ten districts:
- Kolin I - the historic center with the most attractions
- Kolin II - the so-called Prague suburb in the west, with the largest settlement and most of the inhabitants of the city
- Kolin III - the so-called Kourim suburb in the south
- Kolin IV - the so-called Kutna Hora suburb in the east, with bus and train station
- Kolin V - Zálabí, the geographically largest suburb on the right bank
- Kolin VI - the so-called Štítary suburb, a residential area of the interwar period
- Štítary ( German: Chi Tern ) - formerly independent municipality, with archaeological finds from the Celtic period and the Bronze Age
- And also former independent communities Zibohlavy, Šťáralka and Sendražice.
Industrial production today comprises some plants in the chemical and petrochemical industry, the food and polygraphic industry as well as the machinery and automotive industries.
Since February 2005, is situated on the northern outskirts of a car production consortium TPCA ( Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile). On 19 December 2005, was 100,000. Built car, and on 19 December 2008, 1,000,000. Car. Nearly entire production is exported.
The historic center of the city is a protected monument.
- Charles Square and the surrounding streets
- Jewish ghetto and synagogue from 1642
- The old Jewish cemetery of Kolin was used from 1418 to 1888. With about 2,600 graves, this is the second largest and second oldest Jewish cemetery in Bohemia
- St. Bartholomew's Church from the 13th century, built by Peter Parler and restored by Josef Mocker. The painting on the main altar created Josef Kramolín.
- Residues of the City Palace including the former castle brewery
- Kolínská řepařská drážka, the oldest beet railway in the Czech Republic is now a heritage railway
The Cathedral of the New Bridge
Former Jewish Quarter
Memorial stone for the Dean Hynek Ronov ( 1421 )
New and old Kolin Kolin on the Elbe (top left) in 1900, third country receiving
- Netherlands De Ronde veins, Netherlands
- Switzerland Dietikon, Switzerland
- Germany Gransee, Germany
- Germany Kamenz, Germany
- Poland Luban, Poland
- Slovakia Rimavská Sobota, Slovakia
Sons and daughters of the town
- Stephan of Kolin (around 1360-1406 ), theologian and Reform 1397/98 Rector of Charles University
- Jean- Gaspard Deburau (1796-1846), Bohemian- French mime
- Vincenç Morstadt (1802-1875), Czech painter and draftsman
- Bernhard Kraus (1828-1887), Austrian physician
- Josef Popper - Lynkeus (1838-1921), Austrian social philosopher, inventor and writer
- Julius Petschek (1856-1932), Bohemian industrialist and banker
- Ignaz Petschek (1857-1934), Bohemian banker and industrialist
- Josef Svatopluk Machar (1864-1942), poet, prose writer, satirist, journalist, politician, and author of the manifesto Česká moderna and representatives of critical realism
- Georg Petschek (1872-1947), Austrian legal scholars
- Camille Hoffmann (1878-1944), writer and diplomat
- Lev Bory (1883-1944), Swedish journalist and philosopher
- Otokar Fischer (1883-1938), Czech translator, literary critic and playwright
- Rudolf Kremlička (1886-1932), Czech painter and graphic artist
- Alphonsus Czibulka (1888-1969), Austrian writer and painter
- Josef Sudek (1896-1976), Czech photographer
- Eva Randová ( b. 1936 ), Czech opera singer
- František Chochola ( born 1943 ), Czech- German sculptor, illustrator and medalist
- Miloš Zeman ( born 1944 ), Czech politician
- Miloš Jirovský ( b. 1974 ), Czech chess player
- Peter Parler (1330 or 1333-1399 ), architect and architect of the Cathedral
- Bedřich Hrozný (1879-1952), Czech linguist and orientalist
- Ambroz Hradecký († 1439), the Czech Hussite priests and politicians
- František Kmoch (1848-1912), composer