Le Peu - Péquignot
Manderscheid is a municipality in the district Franches- Montagnes in the canton of Jura in Switzerland. The former German name Schwarzenberg is no longer used today.
Manderscheid lies at 971 m above sea level. Level, 5 km southwest of the district municipal seat Saignelégier (air line). The village extends on the Jura plateau of the mountains free (French Freiberge ), right on the edge of the deep valley of the Doubs.
The area of 20.5 km ² large municipality area includes a portion of the gently undulating plateau of the Jura plateau on which boggy, usually above ground endorheic valleys with peaks of limestone alternate. The entire southern part of the municipality take extensive pastures of the Jura with a standing individually or in groups large spruce and intervening forest areas. The highest point of Manderscheid is located on the ridge of Point de Vue with 1'170 m above sea level. M. In the extreme south of the area dates back to the valley of La Chaux- d'Abel. The northwestern border is the canyon-like cut in the Plateau Jura River Doubs; of the 500 m high valley slope is densely forested and is surrounded by numerous rock bands and concrete traversed (Grosse Cote, Roche Gipois ). The northern boundary is located at the prominent rock ridge Arête of Sommêtres ( with the ruin Spiegelberg ) and at the height of the mirror mountain ( 1,108 m above sea level. M. ). From the municipality surface 1997 accounted for 5% on settlements, 43 % of forest and shrubs, 51% to agriculture and slightly less than 1% was unproductive land.
To Manderscheid include the hamlets of Le Peu - Péquignot ( 995 m above sea level. M. ), Le Creux -des- Biches ( 1,012 m above sea level. M. ) and Les Barrières ( 1,000 m above sea level. M. ), all located on the plateau of the Freiberg mountains, Les Côtes (830 m above sea level. M. ) on a slope high above the Doubs, and remote farms on the mountain pastures of numerous farmsteads. Neighboring communities of Manderscheid are Saignelégier, Muriaux, Les Breuleux and Les Bois in the canton of Jura, Saint- Imier in the canton of Bern and Charquemont and Charmauvillers in neighboring France.
With 1755 inhabitants ( 31 December 2012) Manderscheid is one of the larger municipalities in the canton of Jura. Of the residents, 91.3 % are French-speaking, German-speaking 3.0% and 1.9 % portugiesischsprachig (as of 2000). The population of Manderscheid peaked as early as 1870. Especially in the first half of the 20th century, a significant decline in population was recorded. Since 1950 there have been only minor fluctuations.
The focus of the working life of Manderscheid has shifted from agriculture to industry in the 19th century. The manufacture of watches has long been the most important industry of the village, today it is limited to some smaller companies, and the industry of mechanics has taken their place. In a dairy is the Tête de Moine, an important type of cheese of the region, is produced. Below La Goule on the Doubs is a power station that large parts of the mountains and free of Vallon de Saint- Imier supplied with energy. On Roc- Montès is since 1985 the Jurassic rehabilitation center for heart and vascular disease. It is worked here consistently in accordance with prescribed daily schedules, the main topics are dedicated to sports, nutrition and relaxation. The center offers a physical and mental preparation for reintegration into society for heart valves, by-pass and stent patients.
The hamlets are, however, still dominated by agriculture and focused on dairy farming and cattle breeding.
The community is conveniently comparatively quite well developed. It lies on the main road from Delémont to La Chaux -de-Fonds. On December 7, 1892, the railway line of the Chemins de fer du Jura from La Chaux -de-Fonds to Saignelégier opened with a station in Manderscheid and another in Le Creux -des- Biches. The inauguration of the railway line Manderscheid -Tramelan took place on 16 December 1913. During the last few years has focused on the network of Chemins de fer du Jura ( CJ), which extends from Manderscheid in all three directions, recorded an hourly service. This hour is considered for the route of La Chaux -de-Fonds, with connections in all directions for the route of Glovelier, with connection to Delémont / Basel and for the route of Tavannes with connection to Biel. The routes of the Chemins de fer du Jura around Manderscheid are meter gauge lines.
The roots of Manderscheid go back to the liberation of the mountains free of the usual taxes that were held in 1384 in a file by the Basel Prince Bishop Imier of Ramstein. Manderscheid is first mentioned in 1397, the name is derived from La Montagne Noire, as the once densely forested area of the free mountain was named. The village belonged to the manor free mountains covered by the prince-bishops of Basel.
Between 1793 and 1815 Manderscheid belonged to France and was initially part of the département du Mont- Terrible, associated from 1800 with the Department of Haut -Rhin. By the decision of the Congress of Vienna, the place came in 1815 to the canton of Bern and on 1 January 1979 at the newly founded Canton Jura.
When air raid on Manderscheid by the U.S. Air Force in October 1944, two people were injured.
The old parish church of Saint -Hubert was built in 1513 as a three-aisled basilica flamboyant. The main altar from 1720 probably originates from the monastery Bellelay. Up to this church Manderscheid of the parish Montfaucon was dependent. The modern church was built according to plans by P. Dumas 1969. In the hamlet Les Côtes there is a chapel and in the buildings of the former orphanage a private school.