The Most district is the southwestern of the four quarters of Lower Austria with an area of about 5,500 km ². In the north it is bounded by the Danube, to the south and west of the border with Styria and Upper Austria. To the east of the Wienerwald forms a natural border, hence the alternative name quarter the Vienna Woods. Otherwise, one speaks also of general of Southwestern Lower Austria.
That includes wine district, seen political, the districts of:
- Waidhofen an der Ybbs
- Melk south of the Danube
- Tulln south of the Danube
- St. Pölten City and St. Pölten-Land
- Krems-Land south of the Danube
The natural spatial boundaries diverge from it somewhat.
In the state of Lower Austria planning the Most district is covered by the main regions of northeast - middle and Most District, where the latter only to the districts Amstetten, Melk ( partial) and Scheibbs and the city Waidhofen / Ybbs belong.
In addition to this political division, there is a geographical- cultural division:
- Most district, the core area includes areas of Ybbsfeldes to Amstetten, the Urltal, hilly - undulating area and main growing region of the Most trees
- Eisenwurzen, the Lower Austrian part of the Eisenwurzen, bordered to the south Mostviertel along the approximate boundary Waidhofen an der Ybbs - Scheibbs and comprises the southern Ybbstal as well as Small and Large Erlauftal up to the Styrian border.
The latter three are sections of the Danube valley and across borders each bank of half cider district half of Lower Austria Waldviertel or Upper Austrian Upper Austria. Geologically, the southern part of the Wachau ( Hiesberg and Dunkelsteinerwald ) is part of the Bohemian Massif and is therefore attributable more to the Waldviertel.
In official statistics dividing the region in Mostviertel- Eisenwurzen (NUTS: AT121, Waidhofen, Amstetten, Melk, Scheibbs and St. Pölten ( AT123, Sankt Pölten city and country).
The core area of the Mostviertel between Ybbs and Amstetten Enns in the district can be narrowed down as the region in which you see the Basilica on Sunday, according mountain vernacular. According to this definition, the Most district covers a part of the region known as Ostarrichi around Neuhofen an der Ybbs ( the district of Amstetten ), which is referred to by its mention in a deed of Emperor Otto III as originating in Austria. In addition to this core area, there is the concept of Eisenwurzen that for the districts Scheibbs, Waidhofen an der Ybbs, Lilienfeld ( western part) and Melk ( Erlauftal to Poechlarn ) will be used.
The name must district owes it to the apple and pear cider. The region between the rivers Enns and Ybbs has very good conditions for the cultivation of fruit trees and is necessary as a core area for the wine industry.
Typical of the Most districts are the extensive orchards around the homesteads, and the sloping landscape of the Alpine foothills. The "secret " capital of the Most district is the district capital of Amstetten.
In order to boost tourism and improve the marketing of the region there are the so-called "Most Street ", which was set up as a well-signposted experience road especially for tourism and leads to numerous wine taverns, Moststraße wine tavern and farm " on-site " operations as well as viewpoints and trails over that invite to visit.
For several years the must an increased cultural importance is attached. He is now even seen as an identity feature. A variety of Mostheurigen invites you to homemade snacks, pastries, liqueurs and different musts, whose diversity is large in some cases. A distinction is made between pure apple and pear cider, a common form, the mixing must dar.
In Ardagger pin is the MostBirnHaus, conveys the knowledge of the Most District, pears and cider. In this " adventure and pleasure center" of the production process of the must is presented.
Another feature of the culture in the Most Most districts are the Most barons. You maintain the culture around perry and develop them further. There are currently 19 Most barons in the Most district.
Traditionally, the Most district is dominated by agriculture, the economic strength, particularly in the Eisenwurzen still lies in the iron, steel and wood processing industry. While it was the hammer gentlemen who respect the ore from the Erzberg, today it rolling mills, semi-finished products from the blast furnaces Linz and Donawitz form and convert among others, to knives for machines.
Also there are some large and many small sawmills that process the wood of the forests all around, as well as paper mills at Ybbs and Erlauf. But the lion's share from the economy of small and medium-sized businesses. The largest employers in the heartland are Böhler -Uddeholm (steel), Mondi (formerly: Neusiedler ) (paper), Umdasch / Doka (wood / steel), Stora Enso Timber (wood), Wels (steel), Mosser (wood), Bene Office furniture (wood / steel), Miller knife (steel), Busatis (steel) and Riess (steel).
The architecture in the Most district is determined mainly by rural types, is its most important feature of the Vierkanter. Additionally there is a relatively steep roof, usually hipped or half-hipped roof, in the Eisenwurzen also pitched roof. Due to the steep roof form creates a ratio of height to roof one or two-storey wall heights of usually approximately 1:1, that is, the roof is usually almost as high as the lower floors. This gives the impression of clumsiness, but also protection and warmth. Pitched roofs are usually caused by heavy winter snows, because too much snow load on the roofs of these would bring to collapse.
Especially in the direction Eisenwurzen (district Scheibbs, Waidhofen an der Ybbs, southern part of the district of Amstetten ) the Vierkanter is replaced by so-called double-T courtyards. In addition to the four-sided square and there are always still in the region around Ybbsitz the Double T Farm, and, in the fields of alpine dominated Eisenwurzen, the traditional heap and couple yards.
- Melk Abbey
- Pin Herzogsburg
- Gaming Charterhouse
- Schloss Achleiten in Limbach
- Castle Erla
- Schloss Ernegg ( Steinakirchen am Forst )
- Castle Fridau
- Castle Petzenkirchen
- Castle of St. Peter in der Au
- Castle Scheibbs
- Castle Senftenegg
- Rothschild Castle ( Waidhofen an der Ybbs )
- Castle Stiebar ( Gresten )
- Castle Wolfpassing
- Castle Zeillern
- Castle Seisenegg ( cattle village)
- Cell lock ( Waidhofen an der Ybbs )
The Most district is a self-contained core zone of the Austrian Baroque, Mostviertler churches are built mostly late Gothic and Baroque style, the design of the three-aisled hall church or, more rarely, the Basilica are typical. The Sanctuary and Basilica Sonntagberg is a masterpiece of Baroque and spiritual center of the wine district. In some cases, the choir, in the form of a simple apse, elevated as the church, as in Amstetten, Eisenreich Dornach (municipality Amstetten ), Krenstetten (municipality Aschbach market). They have the same characteristics as the Vierkanter on, pitched roof and steeple defiant, typically with Baroque onion dome and lantern. Sometimes they have not only the mechanical clock on a sundial.
Tower Parish Bibersbach
Tower parish church of St. Peter / Au
Tower Parish Wolfbach
Tower collegiate Seitenstettengasse
Tower Parish Weistrach
Tower Parish Zeillern
Many churches in the district must have a Gothic -network and cross-ribbed vault. The interior furnishings and the altars are usually baroque, in some cases as Aschbach market, Krenstetten and St. Stephen in Amstetten, the neo-Gothic altars.
Interior pen Ardagger
Interior Basilica Sonntagberg
In the Eisenwurzen particularly in the area around the former Carthusian monastery, there are numerous gaming hall churches, as Puchenstuben, Josef Berg, St Anton at the Jeßnitz.
Politics and Administration
By the year 1867 the Most district was also administrative unit under the name of the Vienna Woods neighborhood until it was divided to districts.
Politically, it was a separate constituency even up to 1992, until it was broken down to the individual districts.