Wienerwald at Breitenfort
The Vienna Woods is the easternmost foothills of the northern Alps in Lower Austria and Vienna, and thus the north-eastern end of the Alps. The 45- km long and 20-30 km wide mountain range is largely wooded and a popular recreation area of Vienna. It is today, largely fully disclosed, including the border areas of the metropolis of Vienna itself as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald.
- 2.1 history
- 2.2 communities
- 2.3 Transport
- 2.4 Economics
- 2.5 personalities
Location and structure
The hilly to medium mountain -like pronounced, 105 645 hectares of the region lies in the eastern Lower Austria on the border between the must -quarter ( quarter the Vienna Woods ) and the industrial district ( district under the Vienna Woods ), with altitudes between 300 and about 900 m. From the eastern edge of mountains has magnificent views down over Vienna and the Vienna Basin.
To the east of the Wienerwald is limited by the thermal line ( tectonic aborts the Vienna Basin), to the south by the rivers Triesting and Gölsen, on the west by the rivers Traisen and Große Tulln, to the north by the Tullnerfeld and the Danube to Vienna wicket and in Northeast - already in the urban area of Vienna - the Black mountain Park and the Lainzer Tiergarten.
The valleys of the mountains extend mostly east-west and at altitudes of 200-400 m. Particularly appealing is the change between lonely and densely populated valleys and their widely varying slope ( approximately 20% to 75%). Especially impressive are the much sung Helental the spa town of Baden and the distinctive Hagenbachklamm. Geologically, the majority of the Vienna Woods to the Flyschalpen (predominantly sandstone ) the southeastern contrast to the Alps.
The western Wienerwald between Traisen and the Great Tulln is also called Wiesenwienerwald. In early medieval times, the forest has already been cleared by the farmers and there were numerous individual farms with the surrounding orchards and a few place in valleys.
In many orchards, at the forest edges at an altitude of 300 to 500 meters, the service tree is cultivated traditionally. This region has been formed and marketed traditional products from the wild service under the brand Genussregion meadow Elsbeere. The serviceberry is also recognized in the traditional food register.
Mountains, distant views, passes and caves
The highest elevations in the Vienna Woods are above 893 m. A. of belonging to the Flysch sandstone Schöpfl with the Matra room and the adjacent Mitterschöpfl ( 882 m above sea level. A. ), on which the Leopold Figl Observatory is the University of Vienna. From Schöpfl the view often enough 100 km to Oetscher, Schneeberg and other two peaks of the Styrian and Lower Austrians in the Alps.
Southwest of Schöpfl is the Gföhlberg 885 m above sea level. A., as well as in the southeast of belonging to the Northern Limestone Alps High Lindkogel ( 834 m above sea level. A. ) and the Peilstein (716 m above sea level. A. ) with its distinctive climbing wall.
The highest mountain on the Vienna municipality is the Hermannskogel (542 m) with the Habsburgwarte, which was the fundamental point of the geodetic network of the monarchy. Striking is also the Dreimarkstein with 454 m, which forms the border between the districts of Vienna Hernals and Dobling and the Lower Austrian town of Weidling. Magnificent views down over Vienna, the Vienna local mountains Leopold and Kahlenberg, tell their historic churches of the Turkish sieges, as well as the Jubiläumswarte ( 449/480 m) at the Gallitzinberg and the Vienna view in Lainz garden.
In Vienna woods there are few mountains with summit cross and the summit book:
- Steinplattl ( 649 m, highest point in the municipality of Vienna woods in the far northwest on the border with Klausenleopoldsdorf )
- Ross Peak ( 633 m, west of Grub )
- Speichberg (487 m, community Purkersdorf )
With the exception of the High Ge these peaks are not very promising, since fenced and can only be reached on unmarked trails.
The Vienna Woods valleys are mostly in the districts of Wien-Umgebung, Mödling and Baden. In order to connect them together, there are some - but not high - pass roads as the Exelberg ( Sofienalpe ), the court of a mountain, the little Semmering, the Hafnerberg, and the Hengstl. There are also some caves, such as the Dreidärrischenhöhle under the scenic mountain Anninger ( 675/514 m), the elves and Einödhöhle between Pfaffstaetten and Gaaden, the Arnstein cave with Maria Raisenmarkt and the stalactite cave Alland. Also worth mentioning is the Subterranean Lake - the largest underground lake in Europe. Their visit is often combined with some ruins near Mödling.
In addition, there are castles in the Vienna Woods also some important monasteries: the monastery of Heiligenkreuz on the Via Sacra, Kloster Kleinmariazell, Klosterneuburg Monastery and the Charterhouse Wall Bach; Lilienfeld lies just outside.
From other natural attractions, some even be mentioned with descriptive names: the Glocknergrat and the rascals walls at Mödling, the Matterhörndl for climbers Jammerwandl, Mizzi -Langer - wall and the overhanging stone angel in Baden.
Eastern slopes of the Vienna Woods, Kahlenberg and Dobling outskirts of the city of Vienna
Peilstein: southern Kalkzone of the Vienna Woods
The main rivers of the Vienna Woods, the Vienna, the Liesing, the Mödlingbach, the Schwechat and Triesting that drain to the east, and the Great Tulln and the Little Tulln, the Hagenbach and Weidlingbach that drain to the north. All ultimately flow into the Danube.
In essence, the Vienna Woods is determined by the atlantic dominated transitional climate. At the thermal line pannonic, some of them in the mountainous south alpine climate. Especially the northern Vienna Forest forms a weather divide. So often rain on the northwest edge of the coming of rain clouds from the west. Also enhanced fog is recorded there. Especially on the Vienna outer ring road at Hochstraß in 553 m height prevail frequently poor traffic conditions due to fog, snow or ice.
In the north ( flysch Wienerwald ), the Vienna Woods to 77% deciduous trees (mainly beech, oak and hornbeam ), in the southeast ( lime Wienerwald ) to about 46 % coniferous forests ( pine, spruce, pine, fir and larch) on; on the eastern slopes of the Vienna Woods grows wine. For a long time the Wienerwald forest reserve and national royal hunting ground; in the years 1870-1872 rescued Joseph Schoeffel the Vienna Woods from deforestation. Today, the Vienna Woods are protected by the above- mentioned laws. The area of the forest in Vienna is 8650 hectares, or 20 percent of the Vienna municipal area ( 41487 ha).
Typical Schirmföhre Mödling ( Kalkzone )
At the Devil's Stone
The Vienna Woods are protected by natural forest reserves, Natura 2000, Nature Conservation Act and Landscape Protection Act and since 2005, recognized by the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The Lainz Zoo as part of the Vienna Woods the federal capital Vienna was declared a nature reserve. In addition, there are four nature reserves that have been established in some areas of the Vienna Woods ( from north to south ): oak grove sandstone Viennese forest, nature reserve Sparbach and Föhrenberge.
By 2013, a new biosphere reserve Wienerwald center ( Norbertinum ) is built in Untertullnerbach.
Important communities on and in the Vienna Woods are Klosterneuburg, Purkersdorf, Wall Bach, Breitenfort in Vienna, Press tree, Eichgraben, Altlengbach, Neulengbach, Alland, Bad Vöslau, Baden, Gumpoldskirchen, Mödling, Brunn am Gebirge and Sulz.
Through the Vienna Woods performs a series of major transport routes: the western railway ÖBB, the Western Motorway ( A1) and the Vienna outer ring road A21 ( leading on Alland link between Western and Southern Highway ). A replacement coated construction project was the Wienerwald expressway S43, which should form a north- western bypass of Vienna.
Local operate several bus routes as part of the Transport Association Eastern Region.
To speed up the Western Railway during the course of the Vienna Woods, which is an obstacle for fast trains, since 2004, the Wienerwald tunnel was under the northern Vienna Woods as part of the new western railway under construction. On December 9, 2012, the operation was completed on the new section Vienna - be included Sankt Pölten Hauptbahnhof. On the same day the Lainzer tunnel went for connection to the Southern Railway and Eastern Railway in operation, which was under construction since 2006 and is intended to relieve the connecting track through the outskirts of Vienna. As he crosses the Lainzer Tiergarten, he is also popularly known as wild boar tunnel.
Was in numerous places and is sand and gravel mined. The former gypsum galleries of the cave lake in the background Brühl was used in the time of National Socialism as a factory for combat aircraft. Today, the resulting underground lake is a popular tourist destination and a show cave. However, the lake grotto was not the only gypsum mining. Many mining sites, one of which at Preinsfeld near Holy Cross was the largest, but also of Kalkgewinnungen lead to the construction of furnaces, where gypsum and lime were burned.
Along the rivers originated at the latest in the Industrial Revolution, various mills, such as sawing or band mills and forges, (eg, in Bern village) have been successful in part today as high-tech companies. The districts Mödling and Baden count with over 6000 active operating locations in addition to the districts of St. Pölten city and country of the busiest in Lower Austria. Also in the district of Wien-Umgebung, there are very many companies less in Tulln and very few in Lilienfeld. In addition to trade, commerce, crafts and services, there are a lot of tourism and catering - from the refuge to haute cuisine. In the city of Baden the casino Casinos Austria and the spas are an important factor. But the day and weekend tourism from Vienna plays a major role.
Agriculture have the Alpine foothills and the Alpenostrand by their altitude ( up to 1100 m above sea level enterprises ), by steep slopes and shallow soils enigmatic relatively unfavorable production conditions. In high rainfall, therefore, is typical grassland areas, only about 20 % of agricultural land is used as arable land ( foothills of the Alps and the Wienerwald with consistently dairy cattle ). On Alpenostrand with less rainfall mixed farms dominate with a higher proportion of arable. Here dairy farms with an increasing proportion of beef cattle are typical. The orchard cultivation wins again recently in importance as the must and juice production, but especially the Ciderproduktion in Triestingtal recorded a strong increase in sales. At the spa line, particularly in the places Gumpoldskirchen, Sooß and Bad Vöslau, the wine is of great importance. Forestry, equestrian and organic farming round off the range.
- Gertrude of Babenberg (1226-1288), titular Duchess of Austria, resided in Alland, gave birth there
- Frederick I of Baden (1249-1268), titular Duke of Austria
- Poor wretch (1748-1820), forest official builder of Alland
- Joseph Schoeffel (1832-1910), a journalist who saved his articles in 1873 the Vienna Woods from being cut down
- Simon Graf Wimpffen (1867-1925), founder of the Kurbetriebs in Neuhaus
- Wolfgang Ambros ( born 1952 ), an important musician of Austropop from Wolf trench