Norrbotten is one of the historical provinces (Swedish landskap ) of Sweden. Norrbotten since the beginning of the 19th century only one to landskap, when it was separated from Västerbotten. It is in the north of Sweden and is bordered to the north and east to Finland, to the south of Västerbotten and the west and north-west of Lapland.
Piteå Norrbotten extends along the Baltic coast to the north and includes the coming of northern river valleys of the Kalix and Torne. The province is located mostly in the flat coastal landscape, its highest point is 594 m in the west at the Vitberget Vidsel. The coast is preceded by a archipelago, which is up to 40 kilometers wide. Larger cities are from south to north Piteå, Luleå, Kalix and Haparanda.
Despite its waterfront location Norrbotten County has a continental climate, with large temperature differences between seasons (average temperature in July is 15 ˚ to 16 ˚ C and in January at -10 ˚ C to -14 ˚ C) and low rainfall ( 400 to 600 mm / year).
With the retreat of the glaciers after the last ice age about 9,000 years ago people came to Norrbotten, who settled on the coast. Fishing and hunting formed the economic basis for the population, the reindeer herding began long after the birth of Christ. The Norrbottnische culture group is a distinct culture of the Stone Age. From 1000 AD, a peasant culture was created.
The first written records date from the 14th century. The borders between Russia and Sweden in northern Scandinavia were still unclear. In the 1320er and 1330s colonization of river valleys of the Pite and Luleälven was initiated and made the area so that under Swedish rule.
Beginning of the 17th century, the coastal towns of Piteå and Luleå were established to facilitate trade and to strengthen state control. Metallurgical plants originated in the north of the province.
In the 19th century the industrialization of the region began. Forestry and wood processing industry gained importance as well as the iron processing industry by the development of ore in Lapland. The construction of the railway main line Stockholm- floor and the iron ore railway from Kiruna to Narvik on the ground floor made into a major transport hub. 1901 ground was begun with the construction of the fortress.
The first half of the 20th century was marked by industrialization thrust. Steel mills, pulp mills and sawmills were established in the coastal cities. At the same time shrinking agriculture and the rural population moved to the cities.
- Animal: Siberian jay
- Flower: arctic raspberries
- Fish: whitefish
- Vogel: Whooper Swan