Pinus brutia

Calabrian pine ( Pinus brutia )

The Calabrian pine ( Pinus brutia ), also known as Turkish pine or Eastern Mediterranean pine is an evergreen coniferous tree of the genus pine (Pinus ), usually with 10 to 18 centimeters long needles and 6 to 11 cm long seed cones. The natural range is in the eastern Mediterranean region, around the Black Sea and in Western Asia. There are four varieties. The species as a whole is classified as not at risk, the variety Pinus brutia var but pityusa is considered impaired and the degree of hazard of the variety Pinus brutia var eldarica can not be estimated due to lack of data on the actual distribution area. The wood of the type used for the production of a fence post, telephone poles, and railway sleepers and the timber, and it is further processed to pulp. In Turkey, the resin for the production of turpentine is used in several countries is white wine, such as Retsina, flavored with the resin.

  • 5.1 Literature
  • 5.2 Notes and references



The Calabrian pine grows as evergreen, up to 30 meters maybe even 35 meter high tree. The trunk is straight or slightly curved, sometimes forked and has a diameter at breast height of up to 150 to 210 centimeters infrequently. The Stammborke is thin, orange-brown and is only in the lower part of the trunk of large trees thick, deeply furrowed longitudinally and flaky. The bark breaks then into elongated, pale brown to red-brown plates. The branches are horizontal or erect, forming a pyramidal to rounded, open crown. The needled branches are thin, 3-5 mm thick, glabrous and rough by pulvini fallen needle sheaths. Young shoots are initially bluish green, then yellowish brown and gray later.

Buds and needles

The winter buds are ovoid - conical, pointed, 10 to 15 millimeters long and not resinous. The bud scales are reddish brown and have white hairs along the leaf margins and a recurved tip. The needles of older trees grow in pairs or rarely in threes in a lasting, 10 to 16 millimeters long needle sheath. The needles are light or dark green, straight and inelastic rare soft and pendulous, sometimes 5 usually 10 to 18 and sometimes 29 inches long and 1 to 1.5 millimeters thick. The needle edge is finely serrated. On all sides there are fine needle stomatal lines. The needle several near the surface extending resin ducts are formed. The needles remain 1.5 to 2.5 years at the tree and form about 9 months after germination. Needles younger trees are blue tinge, 1.5 to 4 inches long and grow continuously over two to four years.

Cones and seeds

The pollen cones grow spirally arranged in groups. They are yellow, short - cylindrical, 1-2 inches long. The seed cones grow singly, in pairs or threes, rarely in whorls fourth. They are short -stalked to almost sitting and are grown from forward or nearly at right angles from the branches. They are closed narrowly to broadly ovate - conical, ovoid or rarely nearly round, sometimes only 4 usually 6 to 11 and sometimes up to 13 inches long and 3-5 inches wide. Open them have diameters 5-8 centimeters. They are initially green and shiny reddish-brown at maturity. The seed scales are thick woody, stiff, straight and elongated. The apophysis is shiny maroon and gray under influence of weather, in the middle of the pin about 20 millimeters long, flat or slightly raised, often transversely keeled, with more or less rhombic outline with a rounded top edge and provided with thin emanating from the center strip. The umbo is flat or slightly depressed, unarmed, pale or gray-brown, 4-7 mm long, with broadly rhombic outline. The seeds are obovate, 6-7 sometimes up to 8 mm long, about 5 mm wide, slightly flattened, gray-brown, sometimes mottled dark. The seed wing is 14 to 20 millimeters long, 8-11 mm wide, translucent gray-brown with darker stripes.

The seeds mature two years after pollination and open depending on the environmental conditions in the same summer until a year or two later. The seeds are, however, often given only in winter, when the flakes through the rains are softer.

Distribution, ecology and hazard

The natural range of the Calabrian pine lies in the eastern Mediterranean region, around the Black Sea and in Western Asia. They are found in Greece, including the Aegean islands and Crete, Turkey and Lebanon, on the Crimean Peninsula, Bulgaria, Georgia in the Caucasus, in the northwest of Iran, in the north of Iraq and Syria to the west. In Calabria, which is also found in the name of Germany, it became extinct. Pinus brutia grows from sea level up to altitudes of 1500 meters. It forms extensive, open, pure stands or coniferous forests, together with the Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) and the Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa ) and with the Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera ), the mastic tree ( Pistacia lentiscus ), and other drought tolerant trees open mixed forests. The stocks regenerate quickly after bushfire by votes seeds and the type can hold its own in the maquis, if this has been spared by fire several years. The distribution area near the Pacific coast is determined by the Mediterranean climate with cold, damp winters and hot, dry summers. Natural resources, in contrast to forestry applied a rich undergrowth of shrubs and herbaceous plants, which forms an important habitat of different wildlife.

In the IUCN Red List Pinus brutia is not as vulnerable ( " Lower Risk / least concern " ) out. It is noted, however, that a reassessment is pending.

Systematics and history of research

The Calabrian pine ( Pinus brutia ) is a species of the genus pine (Pinus ), in which it is assigned to the subgenus Pinus, section Pinus pinaster, and subsections. It was described in 1811 by Michele Tenore in the flora Napolitana first time scientifically. The genus name Pinus was already used by the Romans for several pine species. The specific epithet brutia probably derives from Brutium from, the Roman name of the area in the Calabria is today. Other synonyms of the species are Pinus halepensis subsp. brutia ( Ten. ) Holmboe, Pinus halepensis brutia var ( Ten. ) A.Henry and Pinus persica Fox Strangw.

There are four varieties:

  • Pinus brutia brutia var: The needles are horizontal and are 10 to 18 inches long. The seed cones are ovoid - conical, the apophysis is reddish brown. The distribution area is located in the eastern Mediterranean and Turkey.
  • Pinus brutia var eldarica ( Medw. ) Silba: The seed cones are ovoid, roundish, the apophysis is slightly elevated and whitish gray. The distribution area is located in Georgia, Azerbaijan, near the border with Georgia, in north-western Iran and northern Iraq. There may also be representative in Afghanistan. Where it grows in semi-arid pine forests mixed with deciduous trees hartlaubigen. For the IUCN missing for the variety sufficient data ( "Data Deficient ") to undertake an evaluation of the hazard. The reason for the poorly known distribution area and missing data is given to the development of stocks. The only hedged positions there are on the border between Georgia and Azerbaijan. The taxon was in 1903 by Yakov Sergeyevich Medvedev as a separate species Pinus eldarica MEDW. ( Basionym ) first described, but the differences to the variety brutia are so low that even the distinction as variety is questionable. The taxon was provided by John Silba 1985 as variety in the species Pinus brutia.
  • Pinus brutia var Pendulifolia Frankis: The needles are suspended and 18 to 29 inches long. The seed cones are ovoid - conical, the apophysis is reddish brown. The distribution area is located in Muğla Province in Turkey.
  • Pinus brutia var pityusa ( Steven ) Silba: The needles are 5-8 inches long and are horizontal. The seed cones are ovoid - conical, the apophysis is reddish brown. The distribution area is located in Russia in the Krasnodar region, in Abkhazia, Georgia and the Crimea in Ukraine. In the IUCN Red List, the variety is listed as endangered ( " Vulnerable "). It is noted, however, that a reassessment is pending. The taxon was first described in 1838 by Christian von Steven as a separate species Pinus pityusa Steven and attributed by John Silba 1985 as a variety of the species Pinus brutia. Other synonyms are Pinus pityusa var stankewiczii Sukaczev and Pinus brutia var stankewiczii ( Sukaczev ) Frankis.


The Calabrian pine has been widely planted in the area of the eastern Mediterranean and around the Black Sea. Along with the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), it can be cultivated most easily in a Mediterranean climate. Even the old stocks from Calabria, which were also used for the initial description could only have been naturalized there. Due to the frequent use of Aleppo pine, however, the differences from the Calabrian pine are washed out by breeding in natural stands, although the Calabrian pine is characterized by a forestry better stem form and a more rapid growth. The wood is used to make fence posts and telephone poles, as a timber for railway sleepers, container and pulp. The resin used since ancient times the flavoring of white wine, such as retsina. In Turkey, the pines are resinated until today mainly for the production of turpentine. In horticulture, it is rarely used, and rarely planted in city parks and in Mediterranean areas. In southeastern Australia, there were attempts to use the type in forestry.