The Rubeniden or Rupeniden were the rulers, from 1199-1342, the kings of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The dynasty was founded by Ruben, of about 1080 settled in the eastern Taurus. In an alliance with Philaretos Brachamios Ruben was able to spread from his castle Kosidar in southern Taurus from the Cilician plain.
History of the Dynasty
The family is first mentioned in the reign of Basil II, as according to the historian John Skylitzes a Rubenide prevented the Bulgarians to penetrate through the Thermopylae into Greece. Another family member married into the Dermokaites family who was very influential in the east of the empire. Ever since 1030 they hung on to the Orthodox faith. Only the choice of first names, a preference for Constantine ( Kostendin ), Leo ( Levon ) and Theodor ( T'odor ), shows his Armenian roots ( Cheynier 1996, 75).
The sources do not agree on the original position Rubens. After Matthias von Edessa Ruben served in the body guard of the ex- king Gagik II. After his death in 1079-1080 Kybistra he avenged bloody, he conquered a territory in the Taurus Mountains. After the generally reliable Michael the Syrian, however, Ruben was a lieutenant of Philaretos Brachamios was therefore officially appointed governor of Cilicia from the Byzantine emperor Michael VII. Cheynier speaks of a re- Armenisierung after the settlement in the Anti- Taurus. After the Rubeniden in the 12th century were in revolt against Byzantium, this origin story of course was not opportune, and they tried to legitimize itself by a vassal or family relationship to the Bagratides. After Smbat Sparapet, Vardan Arewelc ʿ i ( Kompiliation, 65) and the Armenian version of the Chronicle of the World Michaels were he was noble, according to Michael, he was from the Bagratides and Artsruni off after Kirakos of " Gagik of Artsruni ".
Even in the 12th century led the Rubeniden official Byzantine court title, even if they were in open revolt against the respective Emperor.
The great rivals of Rubeniden were the Hethumiden, descendants of the Armenian nobles Oschin, who had settled in Lambron.
List of rulers rubenidischen
- Mr. Constantine I from the mountains 1092-1100
- Thoros I. Lord of the Mountain 1100-1129
- Leon I., Lord of the Mountain 1129-1139 ∞ Beatrice of Bourg -Rethel
- Thoros II (1120-1169), Lord of the Mountain 1145-1169 ∞ Isabella Courtenay of Edessa
- Mleh, Lord of the Mountain 1170-1175
- Leon II (1150-1219), Lord of the Mountain from 1189, when Leon I. King of Armenia 1199-1219
- Zabel ( Isabella ) ∞ Philip of Antioch, ∞ Hayton of Lambron, 1226-1269.
1226 was the domination of Lesser Armenia with the marriage of Hayton I. Zabel on the Hethumiden.