Sakmara River

The Sakmara at settlement Saraktasch, a little below the confluence of the Bolshoy Ik ( Standort51.8262656.3738155 )

Course of Sakmara ( Сакмара ) in the catchment area of the Ural

Template: Infobox River / Obsolete

The Sakmara (Russian Сакмара, Bashkir Һаҡмар / Haqmar ) is a 798 km long right tributary of the Ural Mountains in the south of the Ural Mountains in the European part of Russia.


The Sakmara rises approximately 800 meters above sea level on the Southern Urals Uraltau - comb in the southwest of the Republic of Bashkortostan, a good 60 km west- southwest of the city Magnitogorsk ( Chelyabinsk Oblast ). They first flows in a wide valley between Uraltau and the parallel comb Irendyk in a southerly direction, then reaches the southeastern edge of the Silairplateaus, in which she has cut a deep gorge-like valley. In the city Kuwandyk already on the territory of the Orenburg Oblast, the river turns to the west to north-westerly direction, cuts through the southern foothills of the Silair and reaches the flatter southwest steppe landscape of the mountains.

The Sakmara flows from Kuwandyk to over 150 kilometers ( straight line ) in 15 to 35 kilometers approximately parallel to the Ural River, considered the border between Europe and Asia. In the lower reaches, the river turns to the southwest and finally ends at the western edge of the city of Orenburg as its most important tributary to the Urals. The largest tributaries of the Sakmara are Silair, Bolshoy Ik ( Big Ik) and Salmysch, all right.

After Sakmara the Sakmarium is named, a chronostratigraphic stage of the Permian. The old to 290 million years limestone layers occur, inter alia, on the mountain Kurmain in Karamuruntau Crest revealed, at the foot of the Sakmara in the plane occurs ( Lage51.5556.716666666667 ).


The catchment area of ​​30,200 km ² comprises Sakmara. In estuaries near the river reaches a width of 100 meters at a depth of up to about 2 meters; The flow rate is 0.5 m / s

The Sakmara freezes from November to April. The average water supply of 55 km above the mouth of an annual average of 144 m³ / s (below the confluence of the Salmysch ).

Economy and infrastructure

The Sakmara is navigable in the lower reaches for smaller vehicles, but not reported as inland waterways.

The -carrying area is relatively densely populated especially in the area of ​​Orenburg Oblast and is mostly used for agriculture.

Between Orenburg and Kuwandyk the railway Orenburg Orsk runs through the valley of Sakmara on the left (south ) side. In the Orenburg railway from Samara crosses towards Kazakhstan the river near its mouth, as the branch line Samara - Orenburg - Busuluk the highway M5. The R314 regional road and the railway line ( branches at the station Sakmarskaja of the distance from Orsker ) connecting Orenburg with the Bashkir capital Ufa, cross the river further up, north-east of Orenburg. The R361 from Magnitogorsk on the mining towns Sibai and Baimak after Silair crosses the middle reaches of the Sakmara.