SK-1 spacesuit

SK-1 (short for " Skafandr Kosmitscheskij 1" russian Скафандр Космический for " cosmic Skaphander " = space suit ) is a Soviet space suit, which was developed and manufactured for space flight Vostok spacecraft from Soviet enterprises NPP Zvezda.


  • Ensure hygienic conditions for astronauts up to twelve days
  • Protection of cosmonauts drop in air pressure in the cabin in orbit for five hours and return to the landing capsule within 25 minutes
  • Protection of cosmonauts at the exit with the ejection seat to heights of eight kilometers at a dynamic pressure of 2800 kg / m
  • Provision of oxygen at the parachute landing
  • Ensuring the survival of the wearer in cold water for twelve hours and three days at temperatures of -15 ° C


The SK -1 spacesuit has an open life support system that uses the cabin air during normal operation. In an emergency, emergency oxygen is used. The suit consists of two separate airtight layers, once an outer layer of Lavsan and an inner layer of rubber that are below a heat resistant outer layer. The helmet is firmly attached to the suit and equipped with a double visor, which can automatically close. The gloves are removable. To regulate the temperature SK-1 has an internal heat protective suit with ventilation and cooling. The shoes are optimized for a landing cosmonauts on a parachute. Should the carrier to land in the water, so the collar of the suit inflates automatically using a CO2 cartridge. For communication, the SK -1 suit has a headset and an emergency radio. Overall, the suit weighs 20 kg.

Designed went to SK -1, first, from the W -3 pressure suit, from which it took over the thermal protective clothing and ventilation as well as the S-10 suit, whose helmet was developed and equipped with an automatic closing mechanism. From Vorkuta pilot suit the external covering was derived.


For female cosmonaut an SK-2 mentioned variant was developed, which is technically completely identical, but adapted to the female body.


To test the properties and develop 20 models SK -1 and SK-2 four models were produced. To test the suit in space, two dummies were developed with the unofficial name " Ivan Ivanovich ", whose weight characteristics were human-like and the variety of sensors had measured value acquisition. The dummies were built with the help of the Moscow Institute of prosthesis technology and had fully articulated arms and legs. Even a face with a mustache was painted on the head. To test the radio communication radio was received in the cabin and sent to Earth via the headset again. This misinterpretation and confusion should be avoided with real people.

April 12, 1961 flew with Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, the first man into space. He wore it a SK-1 suit. A total of eleven airworthy models SK -1 and SK-2 were built, of which two were tested with dummies in space, five suits SK-1 were used in further Vostok missions today. In one of the two SK-2 suits Valentina Tereshkova flew Vostok 6 on June 16, 1963 into space.

Further development

For the following Voskhod and Soyuz flights has been omitted for reasons of capacity on wearing space suits in the Command Module. When flying on Soyuz 11 in 1971 came from this basic three cosmonauts died. Then the Sokol suit for the Soyuz spacecraft were developed by NPP Zvezda, which is still used.

Took place in parallel the development of space suits to exit into the free space (EVA).


  • Isaac P. Abramov, A. Ingemar Skoog: Russian Space Suits. Springer -Praxis, 2003, ISBN 1-85233-732- X.
  • Wokrug Sweta: A brief history of the emergence and development of Soviet and Russian space suits (Russian)
  • NPP Zvezda: Image of SK -1 ( English / Russian )

U.S. Navy Mark V | Gemini space suit | MOL space suit | A7L | launch -entry suit | Advanced Crew Escape Suit

Soviet / Russian: SK-1/SK-2 | Berkut | Jastreb | Krechet | Sokol | Orlan | Strisch

European: EVA Suit 2000

Future: Mark III | I- Suit | Bio - Suit | Space Activity Suit

Components: Astronaut Maneuvering Unit | Extravehicular Mobility Unit | Hard Upper Torso | Manned Maneuvering Unit | Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue

  • Space suit
  • Soviet and Russian space