States and territories of Australia
A State, Territory or outdoor area is a member state of the nation- state organized Commonwealth of Australia.
In addition to the six states ( five continental and Tasmania ) and the three continental territories, of which the youngest ( Jervis Bay Territory ) has until 1989 formed by the cleavage from the Capital Territory, there are seven field areas ( six islands / island groups and part of Antarctica ). While the states have considerable autonomy, the territories have a far lower degree of independence or are directly subordinate to the federal government.
Properties of states and territories
The states originated from independent British colonies that existed in 1901 before the independence of Australia. Their rights are protected by the Australian Constitution, they each have their own constitution and its own parliament with extensive rights. Adopted by the federal laws apply in the states only in the areas where allowed by the Federal Constitution expressly.
The territories under the Constitution, however, are in principle directly to the Australian Parliament, which has full legislative power there. The outdoor areas are also directly managed by the federal government, while the present on the Australian continent Territories Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory (ACT ) and the Norfolk Island have their own administration. The Jervis Bay Territory is a special case as the only territory on the Australian continent that does not have self-government; it is in part by the federal government, partly administered by ACT. The federal government has the right to overrule adopted in the self-governing territories of the local administration laws, what he has done in a few rare cases (eg when Terminally Ill Act of the Rights of the Northern Territory ).
Each state has a governor (currently Queen Elizabeth II ), while head of state of Australia, is appointed by the British monarch. The Northern Territory and Norfolk Island are, however, each represented by a Director appointed by the Governor General of Australia representative. The ACT has no such representatives still a governor, but there is the Governor-General some rights that would otherwise fall to a governor, such as the dissolution of Parliament.
Queensland abolished its upper house in 1922, the remaining states have a bicameral legislature. The elections for the lower house, the Legislative Assembly or House of Assembly is called, will be held according to the majority vote, only in Tasmania proportional rule is applied. The upper house, called the Legislative Council, is also elected by proportional representation. The three self-governing territories have a unicameral parliament.
The Government of the Federal States is facing a Prime Minister who is appointed by the local governor. The head of the government of the self-governing territories is called Chief Minister.
- Australian State or Federal Territory