Melbourne [ melbən ] is the capital of the state of Victoria in Australia. It is equipped with 4.25 million inhabitants ( June 2012) to Sydney 's second largest city of the Australian continent. The people of Melbourne are called Melburnians in English. Melbourne was named in 1837 after the then British Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne and is Catholic and Anglican Archbishop seat.
The core of the city with 71 380 inhabitants Melbourne City (2006) and 30 other municipalities existing agglomeration is the most important economic, cultural and political center of Victoria. For the population of the city include many immigrants, British, Greek, Italian, Irish, Croatian, or Vietnamese origin are Chinese.
Based on surveys of The Economist Melbourne has been chosen in the years 2002, 2004, 2005, 2011 and 2012 to the most livable city in the world ( taking into account the cultural conditions, the climate, the cost of living and the social environment ).
- 2.1 Population development
- 3.1 City government
- 3.2 Town twinning
- 4.1 Museums
- 4.2 Structures
- 4.3 Recreation
- 5.1 Economics
- 5.2 traffic
- 5.3 Formation
The city is situated on the Yarra River in the south- east near its mouth in the Port Phillip Bay an average of 14 meters above the sea level. The metropolitan area ( Urbanized Area) has an area of 1,705 square kilometers. It is the second largest city in Australia after Sydney.
The metropolitan area (Melbourne Statistical Division ) has an area of 8,830 square kilometers. It extends from north to south about 70 kilometers from east to west about 50 kilometers. The geographic coordinates are 37.49 degrees south latitude and 144.57 degrees east longitude. So Melbourne is the southern megacity of the world.
31 Local Government Areas ( LGAs ) are in the metropolitan area of Melbourne. This metro Councils form the Greater Melbourne region. 3.6 of the 4.9 million inhabitants ( 2006) Victoria's living here. The 26 -cities are also known as Metropolitan Area, also known as Five Shires Outer Metropolitan Area of Melbourne.
A special role is played by the central LGA City of Melbourne from the city center, whose head bears the title of Lord Mayor (otherwise only Mayor ) and representing the city of Melbourne to the outside.
Geographically, a distinction the city center ( Inner City ) and the northern, eastern, southeastern and western suburbs ( suburbs ). Melbourne is also geographically from 217 districts, some of which overlap with the LGA.
- Inner City Melbourne City
- Port Phillip City
- Yarra City
- Banyule City
- Darebin City
- Hume City
- Moonee Valley City
- Moreland City
- Nillumbik Shire
- Whittlesea City
- Eastern Suburbs Boroondara City
- Knox City
- Manningham City
- Maroondah City
- Whitehorse City
- Yarra Ranges Shire
- Brimbank City
- Hobsons Bay City
- Maribyrnong City
- Melton Shire
- Wyndham City
- South Eastern Suburbs Bayside City
- Cardinia Shire
- Casey City
- Greater Dandenong City
- Frankston City
- Glen Eira City
- Kingston City
- Monash City
- Mornington Peninsula Shire
- Stonnington City
Melbourne is located in the temperate climate zone. The average annual temperature is 14.9 ° C. The warmest month is February with an average temperature of 20.2 ° C, the coldest month is July with 9.7 ° C on average. The highest ever recorded in Melbourne temperature was recorded at 46.4 ° C 7 February 2009, the lowest -2.8 ° C on 21 July 1869.
The mean annual rainfall is 649.8 millimeters. Most precipitation falls in October with an average of 66.1 millimeters, the lowest in January with only 47.3 millimeters on average.
The weather in Melbourne is very changeable and is often described as " four seasons in a day" ( German Four seasons in one day). Strong weather fluctuations can be observed especially from spring to summer. They manifest themselves primarily in the form of storms, rain and rapid temperature drops. For this purpose, the temperature difference between the cool South Pacific Ocean and the much warmer inland Australia is responsible. Heats up the country much faster than the South Pacific, the air rises over the land. The colder air from the sea moves as a south wind, also called Southerly, the northern area of high pressure. This results in a cold front that caused the sudden change in the weather. In the summer flow very warm winds from the center of the continent to Melbourne, as a result, the temperatures are rising sharply. While such a situation, Melbourne recorded three days after another day temperatures of over 40 degrees Celsius, which resulted in the surrounding countryside to the bushfires in Victoria in 2009 in February 2009.
During the winter months it is cooler than in the other capitals of the Australian states (except Hobart ) in Melbourne. Snow occurs rarely, frost and mist occasionally.
The following table shows the average climate of the years 1855-2013:
The territory of the city of Melbourne has been inhabited since around 35,000 years of almost 20,000 Aboriginal people, who were among the three strains of the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong and together formed the Association of the Kulin Nation. For them, the area was an important meeting place, and laid down an important source of water and food dar. 1803, the area was first explored by Europeans in 1835 and settled European settlers of Tasmania over and gave the bay the name of Port Phillip.
As founder John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner apply. Batman was a representative, founded by a group of business men from Launceston in the same year Port Phillip Association. He bought from the resident Aboriginal tribes who negotiated under the leadership Billibellarys, with the agreement known as Batman's Treaty of 240,000 acres of land and founded on the north side of the Yarra River, a settlement. In October 1835 a group of Tasmanian settlers John Pascoe Fawkner concurred that fueled determined in the following settlement activity.
Melbourne was in contrast to other settlements in the southeast of Australia never a penal colony, but was planned from the beginning as a residential area with wide streets and spacious parks. In 1837 the city received in honor of the then Prime Minister of Great Britain, William Lamb, second Viscount Melbourne, its current name. By 1840, over 10,000 people were already living in the region around Melbourne.
1851 Melbourne became the capital of itself loslösenden of New South Wales, newly established British colony of Victoria. Melbourne's largest growth period began with the Victorian gold rush of the early 1850s, than inland Victoria - Bendigo and Ballarat in particular - Gold was discovered. At this time, the city's commercial and business center of the flocked overseas gold rush developed.
End of the 19th century, the city became an important railway junction, its harbor was expanded and major industrial companies moved into the area. After the federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne was first the seat of the Australian federal government until 1913 Canberra became the new capital. The government's move, however, was not completed until 1927. 1956 Summer Olympic Games were held in Melbourne.
The population of Melbourne has doubled to 3.4 million in 2006 since the late 1950s. The population density is 1,978 inhabitants per square kilometer. In Berlin there are 3.800 for comparison. In the rural areas outside the city of about 220,000 people. Where the population density is only 31 inhabitants per square kilometer. In Mecklenburg- Western Pomerania, for comparison, 74 In the entire metropolitan area (Greater Melbourne) live 4.25 million (June 2012). The population density is 407 inhabitants per square kilometer.
For the population of the city include many immigrants, British, Greek, Italian, Irish, Serbian, Croatian, or Vietnamese origin are Chinese. Many immigrants from Eastern Europe profess the Jewish faith. Melbourne is home to 50,000 members, the largest Jewish community in Australia. While most immigrant Jews from Western Europe settled in Sydney, Melbourne chose the Jews from Eastern Europe as a place of residence.
The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants in the city proper with suburban belt ( Urbanized Area). Before 1871 there are estimates, 1881-2006 to census results.
The metropolitan region of Melbourne does not have a centralized management. It consists of the City of Melbourne and 30 other Local Government Areas ( LGA, local administrative areas ), the Lord Mayor of the City of Melbourne unofficially considered as representative of the entire region. It has no jurisdiction over the other LGAs. This lies with the government of the State of Victoria.
All LGA have elected city councils ( so-called "local councils " ) with independent mayors. These "local councils " are comparable to the districts in the German cities of Berlin and Hamburg, where there are a greater number of districts in Melbourne. These are responsible for a number of tasks that have been delegated to them by the state government. Many tasks but are perceived by the state itself. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, police, education from primary school level, and planning of major infrastructure projects.
In Melbourne, the German Consulate General with the responsibility of the states of Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia has its headquarters
Melbourne entertains with the following cities partnerships (in brackets the year of establishment ):
- Japan Osaka, Japan ( 1978)
- People's Republic of China Tianjin, PR China (1980 )
- Greece Thessaloniki, Greece ( 1984)
- United States Boston, United States ( 1985)
- Russia Saint Petersburg, Russia ( 1989)
- Turkey Izmir, Turkey ( 1992)
- Italy Milan, Italy ( 2004)
- Sri Lanka Galle, Sri Lanka ( 2005)
Culture and sights
The Melbourne Museum is the largest museum complex in the southern hemisphere was opened in November 2000. The museum complex also includes the Royal Exhibition Building Scienceworks Museum and the Immigration Museum.
Other well-known museums in the city include the Museum of Victoria, in which the former National Museum of Victoria has risen with its departments of Zoology, Geology and Anthropology, and the National Gallery of Victoria with collections of paintings and photographs.
The cityscape of Melbourne, the historic Queen Victoria Market today is also an attraction, master numerous office buildings. Featured buildings include the State Parliament House, the Royal Exhibition Buildings, the 1968 stock market opened, in 1937, completed in Saint Patrick 's Cathedral and Flinders Street Station.
In the Fitzroy Gardens, the Cook 's Cottage was built. This house originally belonged to the parents of the English sailor and explorer James Cook (1728-1779), the east coast of Australia for Britain took possession in 1770, and was transported to Australia in 1933. Also worth mentioning are the Government House, the National Herbarium and the Royal Botanic Gardens.
The 1978 traffic passed Westgate Bridge, which crosses the Yarra River just before its mouth, is the country's third longest bridge. The Sandridge Bridge in the city center was the first passenger railway bridge in Australia. As part of its renovation and reopening as pedestrian bridge 2006, nine 7.5 -meter-high movable abstract sculpture, called The Travellers were installed that symbolize the various Australian immigrants on the bridge.
2006, the Eureka Tower was completed, the 297 meters and 91 floors is the tallest building in Melbourne ever since. On March 18, 2013, the construction of a skyscraper with address Southbank Boulevard 70 was approved. When completed it will be the tallest building in the southern hemisphere with 388m height and 108 storeys.
The city of Melbourne celebrates each year during the Spring Racing Carnival on the first Tuesday in November, the " Melbourne Cup Day ", which is since 1877 throughout Victoria as a legal holiday. The Melbourne Cup is Australia's biggest horse race and is on the Flemington Racecourse in North Melbourne discharged.
In the summer months the "Summer -Fun - in-the- park " running program. This free, open- air jazz concerts in various parks and nocturnal viewing of Südsternhimmels from Victoria Astronomical Society will be held in the evening.
The bohemian district of Melbourne is located in the southeastern district of Prahran, where, especially in the Chapel St., many galleries, boutiques and for young people and artists attractive bars and restaurants are located.
In Melbourne, Australia's major sporting events take place. Annually in January, the tennis Grand Slam tournament Australian Open will take place. In March is the start of the Formula 1 Grand Prix of Australia on the Albert Park Circuit in St Kilda. Melbourne is considered to be the origin for the most popular sports in Australia Aussie Rules. The annual Grand Final will be held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. This stadium also called MCG is one of the largest stadiums in the world. Here takes place annually on Boxing Day ( Boxing Day ), a test cricket match against England instead.
A tourist attraction is the part of the river bed of the Yarra River Melbourne Aquarium scale underground. A popular recreation area for residents of the city are also the Dandenong Ranges, a mountain range east of Melbourne. Sit on the large surrounding Melbourne natural landscape is being used. The most popular is Wilson's Promontory, Healesville Sanctuary, the Grampians and the Great Ocean Road, which is considered one of the most beautiful coastal roads in the world and runs from Torquay to Warrnambool.
In June, the Melbourne Jazz Festival takes place.
Economy and infrastructure
In Melbourne, among other ships and petroleum products from the shipyards and refineries on the Port Phillip Bay, chemicals, printing products, metals, motor vehicles, electrical and electronic equipment, machinery, textiles, clothing, paper and food are produced.
With the steel and mining company Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Ltd.. (BHP ), whose headquarters is located in the city, Melbourne is home to the largest industrial company in Australia and the largest mining company in the world. Other companies in the country based in Melbourne, the Australian National Bank and Pacific Dunlop, a company that produces and markets various consumer goods.
In addition, in Melbourne, the service sector is growing steadily and makes the city an increasingly important location. In addition to the largest auditors ( PricewaterhouseCoopers, KPMG, Ernst & Young, Deloitte) leading business consultants have (Boston Consulting Group, McKinsey ) their branches.
The German car manufacturer Daimler and Porsche have their Australian headquarters in Melbourne. Here also serves on the GM subsidiary Holden Group and Foster's brewery.
The world-renowned travel guide publisher Lonely Planet has its global headquarters in Footscray, a suburb of Melbourne.
The city is a railway and transport hub. The main airport Melbourne International Airport located 22 kilometers north- west of the center in the suburb of Tullamarine. Another airport, which is used by low cost airlines lies south-west of Melbourne, Avalon. In addition, there are the Essendon Airport and Moorabbin Airport on or at the edge of the urban area, but no scheduled flights operated by both.
The public transport system is called by many Melbournians also since the privatization and splitting into different companies still ' The Met '. Backbone of the transport is the tram was opened on November 11, 1885. While the other two tram systems on the Australian continent - the trams of Sydney and Adelaide - consists of only one route, Melbourne has a rail network of 238 kilometers in length, and thus has the largest tram network in the world. In addition, part of the Met also a railway network and numerous bus lines.
In motor vehicle traffic of the Hook Turn is a Melbourne specialty. Here, turn right turn at some intersections on the basis of tram traffic from the left lane.
The two main universities in the city include the University Established in 1853, Melbourne and Monash University, which opened in 1958. They are among the top eight research universities in Australia. Other educational institutions in the metropolitan area are the La Trobe University ( opened in 1967 ) in Bundoora, Swinburne University of Technology in Hawthorn ( opened in 1968 ), Deakin University ( opened in 1974 ) in Geelong and Burwood and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology ( RMIT University - RMIT, opened 1882) and the Victoria University of Technology ( opened in 1990 ), both located in the City of Melbourne. In North Fitzroy 2008, the " German School Melbourne" opened (DSM ).
Sons and daughters of the town
Melbourne is the birthplace of many famous personalities.