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Towards the end of the century was the transition from the Middle Ages to the late Middle Ages in Europe.
Events and developments
- Fourth to eighth crusade.
- Downfall of the dynasty of the Hohenstaufen and following it, the German interregnum.
- The Mongols under Genghis Khan conquered much of Asia and Eastern Europe and build a Mongol dynasty in China.
- Marco Polo reached China and Tibet.
- First Islamic empires rise in Southeast Asia.
- Everlasting covenant of the Confederates (founded in Switzerland in 1291 ).
- In Strasbourg, the first building workshop arises. Sheds are considered as precursors of the guilds.
- Establishment of the three great mendicant order of Augustinian Hermits, Dominicans and Franciscans
- Establishment of the Inca empire in Peru with its capital in Cusco. Legendary founder Manco Capac is.
- Beginning of European animal processes.
- Fourth Lateran Council
- Second Council of Lyons
- 1212: Children's Crusade
- 1212: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
- July 27, 1214: Battle of Bouvines
- 1198-1215: German throne dispute
- Albertus Magnus, polymath and theologian
- Baybars al - Bunduqdari, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria
- Bonaventure, Franciscan, theologian, Cardinal
- Dante Alighieri, Italian poet
- Genghis Khan, Mongol Khan
- Elizabeth of Thuringia, Landgrave and Holy
- Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order
- Frederick II, Holy Roman -German Emperor
- Louis IX. , King of France
- Meister Eckhart, scholastics and mystics
- Robert of Sorbon, French scholar
- Thomas Aquinas, theologian
- Yunus Emre, a Turkish poet
- Innocent III. , Pope
- Honorius III. , Pope
- Gregory IX. , Pope
- Philip of Swabia, Holy Roman German king
- Otto IV of Brunswick, Holy Roman German king
- Mechthild of Hackeborn, Christian mystic
- The Nibelungenlied is created.
- The verse novel Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach arises in the first decade.
- The Kudrun epic arises.
- The book Zohar (see Kabbalah ) arises betw 1240 and in 1280.
- Around 1230 songs and drama texts of Carmina Burana to be written down.
- The Codex Sangallensis 857, a comprehensive German-language epics collecting handwriting, written mid-13th century.
- The Code Medicina antiqua the Austrian National Library is created around 1250 in Sicily (Codex Vindobonensis 93).
- In Spain, the Cantigas de Santa Maria (about: Songs for the Virgin Mary ) written down, one of the largest collections of medieval songs.
- The coat of arms roles, collections of coats of arms, arise.
- Praying Daniels of the prisoner, the oldest Russian epic.
- In Jena, a man will be buried, who had been mummified after ancient Egyptian method (see links).
- The Ebstorfer world map is the largest representation of the world in the Middle Ages.
- Major European works of manuscript illumination as the Maciejowski Bible arise.
- Impressive stone sculptures are created in Magdeburg, Naumburg and Bamberg Cathedral